Title: Law Professors' Letter

Release Date: 2014-03-20

Text: ATTACHMENT 29Private Manning's HumiliationBradley Manning is the soldier charged with leaking U.S. government documents to Wikileaks.He is cun-ently detained under degrading and inhumane conditions that are illegal and immoral.For nine months, Manning has been confined to his cell for 23 hours a day. During his oneremaining hour, he can walk in circles in another room, with no other prisoners present. He is notallowed to doze off or relax during the day, but must answer the question "Are you OK?"verbally and in the affirmative every five minutes. At night, he is awakened to be asked again,"are you OK" every time he turns his back to the cell door or covers his head with a blanket sothat the guards cannot see his face. During the past week he was forced to sleep naked and standnaked for inspection in front ofhis cell, and for the indefinite future must remove his clothes andwear a "smock" under claims of risk to himself that he disputes.The sum of the treatment that has been widely reported is a violation of the Eighth Amendment'sprohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, and the Fifth Amendment's guarantee againstpunishment without trial. If continued, it may well amount to a violation of the criminal statuteagainst torture, defined as, among other things, "the administration or application... of...procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or the personality."Private Manning has been designated as an appropriate subject for both Maximum Security andPrevention of hijury (POI) detention. But he asserts that his administrative reports consistentlydescribe him as a well-behaved prisoner who does not fit the requirements for MaximumSecurity detention. The Brig psychiatrist began recommending his removal from Prevention ofInjury months ago. These claims have not been publicly contested. In an Orwellian twist, thespokesman for the brig commander refused to explain the forced nudity "because to discuss thedetails would be a violation of Manning's privacy."The Administration has provided no evidence that Manning's treatment reflects a concern for hisown safety or that of other inmates. Unless and until it does so, there is only one reasonableinference: this pattem of degrading treatment aims either to deter future whistleblowers, or toforce Manning to implicate Wikileaks founder Julian Assange in a conspiracy, or both.If Manning is guilty of a crime, let him be tried, convicted, and punished according to law. Buthis treatment must be consistent with the Constitution and the Bill ofRights. There is no excusefor his degrading and inhumane pre-trial punisliment. As the State Department's PJ Crowly put itrecently, they are "counterproductive and stupid." And yet Crowley has now been forced toresign for speaking the plain truth.The Wikileaks disclosures have touched every corner of the world. Now the whole worldwatches America and observes what it does; not what it says.President Obama was once a professor of constitutional law, and entered the national stage as aneloquent moral leader. The question now, however, is whether his conduct as Commander inChief meets fundamental standards of decency. He should not merely assert that Manning'sconfinement is "appropriate and meet[s] our basic standards," as he did recently. He shouldrequire the Pentagon publicly to document the grounds for its extraordinary actions-andimmediately end those which cannot withstand the light of day.Signed:Bruce Ackerman,^aleUaw School^ochaiBenkler,HarvardI^aw SchoolAdditional Signatories (institutional affiliation, tor identification purposes only):Jack Balkin,^aleUaw SchoolRichardU^bel,UCUAUawDavid Abrams, Harvard Uaw SchoolMartha Ackelsberg, Smith CollegeJulia Adams, Sociology,^ale UniversityKirstenAinley,Uondon School ofEconomicsJeffreyAlexander,^ale UniversityPhilip Alston, N ^ U School ofUawAnne Alstott, Harvard I^aw SchoolElizabeth Anderson, Philosophy andWomen^s Studies, University ofMichiganKevin Anderson,University ofCalitorniaScott Anderson, Philosophy,UniversityofBritish ColumbiaClaudia Angelos,N^U School ofEawDonald K.Anton. Australian National University College ofEawJoyce Appleby,History,UCEAKwameAnthonyAppiah,Princeton UniversityStanleyAionowitz,Sociology,CUN^Oraduate CenterJean Maria Arrigo,PhD,social psychologist, Project on Ethics and Art inTestimonyReuvenAvi-^onah, University ofMichigan EawH.Robert Baker, Ceorgia State UniversityKatherine Beckett, University ofWashingtonDuncan Bell, Politics and Intemational Studies, University of CambridgeSteve Berenson,ThomasJefterson School ofUawMichaelBeitrand,UNCChapelHillChristophBezemek, Public Eaw,^ienna University ofEconomics and BusinessMichaelJ.Bosia, Political Science, Saint Michael^s CollegeBret Boyce, University ofDetroit Mercy School ofUawRebecca M.Bratspies,CUN^ School ofUawJason Brennan,Philosophy,Brown UniversityTalbot Brewer,Philosophy,University of^irginiaJohn Bronsteen,Eoyola University ChicagoPeter Brooks, Princeton UniversityJames Robert Brown,UniversityofTorontoSandeE.Buhai,EoyolaEaw School, Eos AngelesAhmedIBulbulia,Seton Hall Eaw SchoolSusannah Camic, University ofWisconsinEaw SchoolEaurenCarasik,Westem New England College School ofUawTeriE.Caraway,UniversityofMinnesotaAlexander M.Capion, University ofSouthern Califomia, Could School ofEawMichaelW.Carroll,Eaw American UniversityMarshall Carter-Tripp, Ph.D, Foreign Service Officer, retiredJonathan Chausovsky,Political Science, SUN^-FredoniaCarol Chomsky,UniversityofMinnesota Eaw SchoolJohn Clippinger,Berkman Center tor Intemet and SocietyAndrew Jason Cohen,Creorgia State UniversityEizabeth Cohen, Harvard UniversityMaijorieCohn,ThomasJefIerson School ofEawDoug Colbert, Maryland School ofEawSheila Collins, William Paterson UniversityNancy Combs, Williams Mary Eaw SchoolStephen A. Coi^ad, Indiana University Mauer School ofEawSteve Cook, Philosophy,Utica CollegeRobert Crawtoid,Arts and Sciences,University ofWashingtonThomasP.Crocker,UniversityofSouth CarolinaJennifer Curtin,UCI School ofMedicineDerylD.Dantzler,WalterF.Corge School ofEaw ofMercer UniversityBenjaminCDavis,University ofToledo College ofEawRochelle Davis, School ofForeignService,Ceorgetown UniversityWolfgang Deckers, Ricl^^ondUniversity,EondonMichelle M.Dempsey,^illanova University School ofEawWaiCheeDimock,English,^ale UniversitySinanDogramaci,Philosophy,University ofTexas at Austin^aydDohrn, Northwestern UniversityJasonP.Dominguez,Texas Southern UniversityJudith Donath,Fellow,Berkn^an Center for Intemet and SocietyNorman Dorsen,NewYork University School ofEawMichaelW.Doyle, International Affairs, Eaw and Political Science,ColumbiaBruceT.Draine, Astrophysics,Princeton UniversityJay Driskell,History,Hood CollegeMichael C.Duff, University ofWyomingCollegeofEawEisaDuggan, Social and Cultural Analysis, N ^ UCynthiaFuchsEpstein,CraduateCenter,CU^^Stephen M.Engel, PhD, Political Science, Marquette UniversitySimonEvnine,Philosophy,UniversityofMiamiMarkFenster,Eevin College ofEaw, University ofFloridaMartha Field, Harvard Eaw SchoolJustin Fisher, Philosophy,Southein Methodist UniversityWilliam Fisher, Harvard Eaw SchoolJoseph Fishkin,University ofTexas School ofEawMark Fishman,Sociology,Brooklyn CollegeMartin S.Flaheity,Fordham Eaw SchoolCeorgeP.Fletcher, Columbia University,School ofEawJohn Flood, Eaw and Sociology,UniversityofWestminsterMichaelFon^an,University ofWashingtonTacomaBryan Frances, Philosophy,Fordham UniversityKatherine Franke, Columbia Eaw SchoolNancy Fraser,Philosophy and Politics, New School tor Social ResearchEric M.Freedman,Hofstra Eaw SchoolMonroe H.Freedman,Hofstra University Eaw SchoolKennan Ferguson, University ofWisconsin, MilwaukeeJohnR.Fitzpatrick,Philosophy,UniversityofTennessee/ChattanoogaA.Michael Froomkin, University ofMiami School ofEawCeraldFrug, Harvard Eaw SchoolEouisFurmanski,University ofCentral OklahomaJames K.Calbraith,EBJ School ofPublic Affairs, University ofTexas at AustinHerbertJCans, Columbia UniversityWilliam Cardner, Pediatrics, Psychology,^ Psychiatry, The Ohio State UniversityUrsOasser, Harvard Eaw School, Berkman Center for Intemet and SocietyJuliusCCetman, University ofTexas Eaw SchoolTodd Citlin, Columbia UniversityBob Ooodin, Australian National UniversityAngelina SnodgrassCodoy,Human Rights, University ofWashingtonDavid Colove,N^U School ofEawJames R.Coetsch Jr.,Philosophy,Eckerd CollegeThomas Ookey,Art and Information Studies,Syracuse UniversityRobertW.Oordon,^ale Eaw SchoolStephen E.Oottlieb, Albany Eaw SchoolMark A.Oraber, University ofMaryland School ofEawJorieOraham, Harvard UniversityRoger Oreen, Pol. Sci. and Pub. Admin., Florida Culf CoastDaniel JHOreenwood,Hofstra University School ofEawChristopher E.Oriffin,^isiting, Duke Eaw SchoolJames Orimmelmann, NewYork Eaw SchoolJames Crronquist,Charlotte School ofEawJean Orossholtz, Politics, MountHolyoke CollegeEisaOuenther,Philosophy,^anderbilt UniversityChristopher Ouzelian,Thomas Jefferson School ofEawOillianK. Hadfield,Eaw,Economics, University ofSouthern CalifomiaJonathan Hafetz,Seton Hall University School ofEawEisa Hajjar, University ofCalifomia Santa BarbaraSusan Hazeldean, Robert M.Cover Fellow,^ale Eaw SchoolDirk t.D.Held, Classics, Coni^ecticut CollegeKevin Jon Heller, Melbourne Eaw SchoolEynne Henderson, UNE^-Boyd School ofEaw(emerita)Stephen Hetherington,Philosophy,UniversityofNewSouthWalesKurt Hochenauer, University ofCentral OklahomaEormyHoffi^an,UnivofHouston Eaw CenterMichael Hopkins, MHC Intemational EtdNathan Robert Howard, St. AndrewsMarc Morje Howard, Covemment, Ceorgetown UniversityKyronHuigens,Cardozo School ofEawAlexandra Huneeus,University ofWisconsin Eaw SchoolDavid Ingram, Philosophy, Eoyola University ChicagoDavid Isenberg, Isen.comSheila Jasanoff, Harvard Kennedy SchoolChristopher Jencks, Harvard Kennedy SchoolPaula Johnson, Alliant Intemational UniversityRobertN.Johnson, Philosophy,UniversityofMissouriAlbyn C.Jones, Statistics, Reed CollegeEynneJoyrich, Modem Culture and Media, Brown UniversityDavid Kaiiys,Beasley Eaw SchoolEileen Kaufman,Touro Eaw CenterKevin B.Kelly,Seton Hall University School ofEawAnttiKauppinen,Philosophy,Trinity College DublinRandall Kennedy, Harvard Eaw SchoolDaniel Kevles,^ale UniversityHeidi Kitrosser, University ofMinnesota Eaw SchoolCillianR.Knapp, Princeton UniversitySethF.Kreimer University ofPennsylvania Eaw SchoolAlex Kreit,Thomas Jefferson School ofEawStefan H.Krieger,Hofstra University School ofEawMitchell Easser, Cornell Eaw SchoolMark EeBar, Philosophy, Ohio UniversityBrian Eeiter,University of ChicagoMary Clare Eem^on,Sociology,TheCraduateCenter,CUN^OeorgeEevine,Rutgers UniversitySanfordEevinson, University ofTexas Eaw SchoolMargaret Eevi,Pol.Sci.,University ofWashington and University ofSydneyTracy Eightcap, Political Science, EaCrange CollegeDaniel Eipson, Political Science, SUN^NewPaltzStacy Eitz,Drexel UniversityFiona deEondras, University College Dublin, IrelandJohn Eunstroth, University ofHouston Eaw CenterDavid Euban,Ceorgetown University Eaw CenterPeter Eudlow,Philosophy,Northwestem UniversityCeceliaEynch, University of CaliforniaDavidEyot^s,Boston UniversityColin Maclay, Harvard University, Berkn^an CenterJoan Mahoney,Emeritus,Wayne State University Eaw SchoolChibhMallat,^isiting Professor, Harvard Eaw SchoolPhil Malone, Harvard Eaw SchoolJane Mansbridge, Harvard Kennedy SchoolJeffManza,Sociology,New^ork UniversityDan Markel, Florida State UniversityDaniel Markovits,^ale Eaw SchoolRichard Markovits, University ofTexas Eaw SchoolMichael R.Masinter, Nova Southeastern UniversityRuth Mason,UniversityofConnecticut School ofEawRachel A.May,UniversityofSouth FloridaJamie Mayerfeld, Political Science,University ofWashingtonDiane H.Mazur,University ofFlorida Eevin College ofEawJason Mazzone, Brooklyn Eaw SchoolJeffMcMahan, Philosophy, Rutgers UniversityRichardJ.Meagher Jr.,Randolph-Macon CollegeAgustin Jose Menendez,UniversidaddeEeon and University ofOsloHope Metcalf^ale Eaw SchoolFrankEMichelman, Harvard UniversityOaryMinda, Brooklyn Eaw SchoolJohn Mikhail,Oeorgetown University Eaw CenterCregg Miller, Political Science,University ofWashingtonEbenMoglen, Columbia Eaw School and Software Freedom Eaw CenterImmanuelNess,BrooklynCollege, City University ofNew^orkCharles Nesson, Harvard UniversityJoel Ngugi,Eaw,African Studies, University ofWashingtonRalitzaNikolaeva,ISCTE Business School, Eisbon University InstituteJohn Palfrey, Harvard Eaw SchoolJames Paradis, Comparative Media Studies, MITEmma Perry,Eondon School ofEconomics and Political ScienceCharles Pigden, University ofOtagoAdrian duPlessis,Wolfson College, Cambridge UniversityPatrick S.O^Donnell,Philosophy,Santa Barbara City CollegeHans Oberdiek,Philosophy,Swarthmore CollegeDuaneOldfield, Political Science, Knox CollegeMichael Paris,Political Science,The College ofStatenlsland(CUN^)Philip Pettit,University Professor ofPolitics and Human^alues, PrincetonFrank A. Pasquale,Seton Hall Eaw SchoolMatthew Pierce, University ofNorth CarolinaCharles Pigden, Philosophy,UniversityofOtagoEesliePlachta,MDMPH, Albert Einstein College ofMedicineThomas Pogge,^ale UniversityOiovarmaPompele,University ofMiamiJoelPust,Philosophy,UniversityofDelawareUlrichK.Preuss,Eaw^ Politics, Hertie School ofCovernance, BerlinMargaretJaneRadin, University ofMichigan and emerita, Stanford UniversityAziz Rana,Comell University Eaw SchoolCustavRanis,^ale UniversityRahul Rao,School ofOriental^Afiican Studies, University ofEondonCalairRasmussen, Affiliation: Political Science, University ofDelawareDaniel Ray, Thomas M. Cooley Eaw SchoolJeff^.Redding, Saint Eouis University School ofEawC.D.C.Reeve, Philosophy,University ofNorth Carolina at Chapel HillBryan Register,Philosophy,Texas State UniversityRobert B.Reich, University of Califomia, BerkeleyCassandra Burke Robertson, Case Western Reserve University School ofEawJohn A. Robertson, University ofTexas Eaw SchoolCorey Robin, Brooklyn College and the CUN^Craduate CenterClarissa Rojas,CSUEong BeachKermit Roosevelt, University ofPennsylvania Eaw SchoolSusan Rose-Ackerman,Eaw,PoliticalScience,^ale UniversityNorm Rosenberg, History,Macalester CollegeClifford Rosky,UniversityofUtahBrad R. Roth, Poll.Sci.and Eaw,Wayne State UniversityBarbara KatzRotl^an,Sociology,City University ofNew^orkBo Rothstein Political Science,University ofCothenburgEauiaE.Rovner,UniversityofDenverCollegeofEawDonald Rutherford,Philosophy,UniversityofCalifornia, San DiegoEeonardRubenstein,JD,Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School ofPublic HealthChester M.Rzadkiewicz,History,UniversityofEouisiana at EafayetteDeWitt Sage, FilmmakerCindy Skach, Comparative Covemment and Eaw, OxfordWilliamJ.Talbott, Philosophy,University ofWashingtonNatsuTaylorSaito,Ceorgia State University CollegeofEawDean Savage, queens College, Sociology,CUN^KentD.Schenkel,New England EawKim Scheppele, Princeton UniveristyBen Schoenbachler,Psychiatry, University ofEouisvilleJeffrey Schnapp, Harvard UniversityKenneth Sherrill, Political Science, Hunter CollegeClaire Snyder-Hall, Ceorge Mason UniversityJeffrey Selbin,^ale Eaw SchoolWendy Seltzer,Fellow,PrincetonCenterforInformationTechnology PolicyJose M.Sentmanat,Philosophy,Moreno^alley College,CaliforniaOmnia El Shakry,History,UniversityofCaliforniaScott Shapiro,^ale UniversityStephen Sheehi,Eanguages,Eit. and Cultures,University ofSouth CarolinaJames Silk,^ale Eaw SchoolRobertD.Sloane, Boston University School ofEawRonald C.Slye,Eaw,Seattle UniversityMatthew Noah Smith, Philosophy,^ale UniversityStephen Samuel Smith, Political Science,Winthrop UniversityJohn M.Stewart, Emeritus, Psychology,Noi^hland CollegePeter O^Stillman,^assar CollegeAlec Stone Sweet,^ale Eaw SchoolRobertN.Strassfeld,CaseWestem Reserve University School ofEawMateoTaussig-Rubbo,SUN^-Buffalo Eaw SchoolJeanneTheoharis, Brooklyn College o f C U ^ ^Frai^ Thompson, University ofMichiganMatthewTitolo,West Virginia University College ofEawMassimo delaToi^e, University ofHull Eaw SchoolJohnTorpey,CUN^Craduate Center^ilnaBashiTreitler, Blacks Hispanic Studies,Baruch College, CityEaurenceH. Tribe, Harvard UniversityDavid M.Trubek, University ofWisconsin(emeritus)Robert E.Tsai,American University,Washington College ofEawPeter^allentyne, Philosophy,University ofMissouriJoan^ogel,^ermont Eaw SchoolPaul^oice,Philosophy,Bennington CollegeVictor Wallis,BerkleeCollegeofMusicDavidWatkins, Political Science,UniversityofDaytonJonathanWeinberg,Wayne State UniversityHenry Weinstein,Eaw,EiteraryJoumalism, University ofCaliforniaMargaret Weir, Political Science,UniversityofCalifornia, BerkeleyChristina E.Wells, University ofMissouri School ofEawDanielle Wenner, Rice UniversityBryan H.Wildenthal,Thomas Jefferson School ofEawEangdonWinner,Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteNaomiWolf, authorEauris Wren, Hofstra Eaw SchoolElizabethWurtzel,Attomey and authorBetty^orburg, Emerita, City University ofNew^orkBenjamins.^ost,Philosophy,Providence CollegeJonathan ^asloffUCEA School ofEawMichaelJ.dimmer. Professor ofEaw,Eoyola University ChicagoEee Zimmerman, English, Hofstra UniversityMary Marsh ^ulack, Columbia Eaw SchoolUP^AT^: Our initial draft relied on news reports in the major news outlets. Comments wereceived since then lead us to think that two facts may be overstated in the original draft:1. The instance offorced nudity ovemight and in morning parade apparently occurred once. Thecontinuing regime apparently commands removal ofPvt.Manning^s clothes and his wearinga"smock" at night.2. The shackling apparently occurs when Private Manning is moved from his cell to the exerciseroom, but not while walking during the one hour ofexercise.Other responses we have received suggest that there are claims ofmyriad other abuses that makeconditions worse in various ways than we describe.Wedo not, and cani^ot, seek to adjudicatethese factual claims.The confiicting responses underscore the need forapublic,transparent, andcredible response to the reported abuse, and cessation ofthose among them that cannot bejustified.Sources:http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2^11/apr/2^/private-mannings-humiliatioi^http://balkin.blogspot.com/2^11/^3/statement-onpiivate-mannings-detention.html


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