Title: Department of State - Country Reports on Terrorism

Release Date: 2014-03-20

Text: UNITED STATES OF AMERICAy.Manning, BradleyE.PFCUSArmy,HHCU.S.ArmyGarrison,JointBaseMyerHendersonHallFortMyer, Virginia 22211Supplement to Government Addendum toMotion toTakeJudicial Notice datedlONovember 2012Enclosure 2311 January 2013Chapter 5 - Terrorist Safes(7120 Report)wPage 1 of34U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATEP L 0 M A CYChapter 5 - Terrorist Safe Havens (7120 Report)C o u n t r y Reports o n T e r r o r i s mOFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR FOR COUNTERTERRORISMApril 30, 2007Reportupdate of Infomiation Originally Reported Under Section 7120(b) ofthe Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Prevention ActSection 2656f(b) requires that this report include "an update of the infonnation contained in the report required to be transmitted to Congress under Section 7120(b)of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act," Section 7120(b) includes certain reporting requirements relating lo terrorist "sanctuanes" in addition to other reportingrequirements [We have integrated the terrorist sanctuary reporting required under Section 7120(b) in the present chapter Because the term "sanctuary" iscommonly associated with places of worship, we have, for greater clanty and for consistency with the terminology used elsewhere in Country Reports on Terrorism,referred instead here to terronst "safe havens," We interpret terronst "safe haven" to have the same meaning as ten-orist "sanctuary" for purposes of Section 7120(b).The 7120 report includes;1.Tenonst Safe Havens: Strategies, Tactics, Tools for Disrupting or Eliminating Safe Havens2.Support for Pakistan3Collaboration with Saudi Arabia4.Struggle of ideas in the Islamic Worid5.Outreach through the Broadcast Media6.Visas for Participants in United States Programs7.Basic Education in Muslim Countnes8Economic Reform5.1. Terrorist Safe HavensTen-orist safe havens are defined in this report as ungovemed. under-governed, or ill-governed areas of a country and non-physical areas where terrorists thatconstitute a threat to U S national secunty interests are able to organize, plan, raise funds, communicate, recruit, train, and operate in relative secunty because ofinadequate govemance capacity, political will, or both. Physical safe havens provide security for terronst leaders, allowing them to plan acts of terrorism around theworid. Global communications and financial systems, especially those created by electronic infrastnjclure such as the internet, global media, and unregulatedeconomic activity, further allow terrorists to carry out activities, particulariy the dissemination of propaganda and misinformation, without the need for a physical safehaven. These "virtual" havens are highly mobile, difficult to track, and difficult to control, and are not based in any particular state This part of the report, however,will not address virtual safe havens, focusing instead on physical safe havens.Somalia. A small number of al-Qaida operatives found safe haven in East Africa, particulariy Somalia, where they continued to pose a serious threat lo Americanand allied interests in the region Although these elements were severely disnjpied at year's end as a result of Ethiopian and Somali Transitional FederalGovemment military actions, AQ continued lo operate tn Somalia and elsewhere in East Afnca Somalia remains a concern given the country's long unguardedcoastline, porous borders, continued political instability, and proximity to the Arabian Peninsula all of which provide opportunities for terronst transit and/or safehaven, AQ remains likely to make common cause with Somali extremists.The Trans-Sahara. The Algena based Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (AQIM/GSPC) officially merged with al-Qaida in September, and subsequentlychanged its name to al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), The AQIM/GSPC continues to operate in the Trans-Sahara region, crossing difficult-to-patrol bordersbetween Mali. Mauritania. Niger, Algeria, and Chad to recruit extremists within the region for training and terrorist operations in the Trans-Sahara, and possibly foroperations outside the region, Ils new alliance with Al-Qaida potentially has given il access lo more resources and training.Northern Mali served as a potential safe haven for terrorists, traffickers, and smugglers because the region's remoteness and harsh desert climate discouragedeffective assertion of central govemment control The al-Qaida-aligned AQIM/GSPC maintained a small-scale presence using sparsely populated areas in northemMali as a safe haven, although the group does not maintain pennanent facilities and is constantly on the move. Since a brief exchange of gunfire in Apnl 2004,during which four Malian armed forces personnel were wounded, there have been no confrontations between the Malian military and the AQIM/GSPC, InSeptember and October, a group of Malian Tuareg rebels, known as the Alliance for Democracy and Change (ADC), engaged in two fire-fights with theAQIM/GSPC in northern Mali, The Malian govemment has announced no official position on the violence between Ihe ADC and AQIM/GSPC, nor did it attempt loconfront AQIM/GSPC elements in the North or prevent their use of Malian temtory in 2006,The Govemment of Mauritaniaaggressively pursued AQIM/GSPC members on its terntory, and several AQIM/GSPC members who attempted to infiltrate thehttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale 1^^1^(7120 Report)Page2of34counlrywerean-ested In contrast With 2005, there were no terrorist attacks on Mauritanian soil However,fighting between the AQl^^Northem Mall occasionally threatened the border region.^astA^ia and PacificThe S^lo/S^lawesi Seas l^lttoral.SoutheastAsiaincludesasafe haven area composed ofthe Sulawesi Sea and Sulu Archipelago,which s^boundary between Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines The geography of the thousands of islands in the region makes them very difficult for authonties tomonitor The range of non-terrorist achvities, both licit and illicit, lhal are occumng in this maritime area pose another challenge to itenonst threat Although Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines have improved their efforts lo control their shared mantime boundaries, the area remained diff^to control Surveillance is partial at best, and traditional smuggling and piracy groups provided an effective cover for terrorist activities 1^movement of personnel,equipment, and funds This area represenlsasafe haven for the AQ-linked Jemaah Islamiya(Jl) organization arid the Philippine AbuSayyaf Group (ASG)lri200^, Malaysian authorities arrested several members ofa^l support cell in Sabah, Malaysia,who were facilitating ^lactiviDecember,lhe Malaysian Defense Minister/Deputy Prime Minister and his Indonesian counterpart announced an initiative lo enhance bilateral police COalong the land border on Borneo^ The Southern Philipplnes.The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG),responsible for multiple bombings and kidnappings throughout the southern Philippines in recentyears, remained active, although weakened Several key operatives, including ASG leader l^hadaffyJan^alani and his lieutenant Abu Solaiman. were killedduringacounterterrorism offensive by the Armed Porces of the Philippines^! and ASG operatives continued to enjoy safe haven in the Southern Philippinesbi^ sustained,effective counterterrorist Iteld operations by Philippine military forces on key islands of the Sulu archipelago have hadamarked impterrorists'freedom of action Development programs, civil-military affairs projects such as infrastructure construction, medical and den^measures have undermined public sympathy for terrorist groups and boosted popular support for the govemmenL^ Indonesia.Although Indonesia has made significant progress in weakening the JI terronst organization,JI continues to operate in Indonesia,ageographi^^widespread archipelago country with porous borders and CTresource constraints l^eyJI operational planner NoordinMatTop remains on the run^aggressively pursued by Indonesian CTaulhontiesf^ear^astA^iairaq. Iraq is nol currenllyalen-orisl safe haven,but terrorists,including Sunni groups like al-Qaida in Iraq (AQI).Ansar al-lslamwell as Shia extremists and other groups.view Iraq asapotential safe haven and are attempting to make itarealityThe June7death of AQI leader.AbuMusabal-^arqawi.damaged the group's leadership but did not diminish attacks against Coalition Porces. Iraqi civ^^infrastructure nor did it halt overall increasing attack trends by the group and other affiliated groups Senior Iraqi officials, including 1^^^to Iran throughout the year encouraging the Iranian government to support Iraq's political process and to slop malenal support of terrorist groups and militia^^Although efforts by the Iraqi government, the Ignited States, Coalition partners, and the international community are helping to thwart the terronsls^^battle IS not over Prospects for increasing stability in Iraq over the next yearwill depend on the extent to which the Iraqi govemment and political leaders canestablish effective national institutions thai transcend sectarian or ethnic interests and, within this context, the willingness of the secu^elements of all kinds; the extent to which extremists, most notably AQI, can be defeated in their attempt to foment inter-sectarian struggle between Shia and S^^^and the extent to which Iraq's neighbors, especially Iran and Syria can be persuaded to stop the flow of militants and munitions across their borders^ ^o^herniraq.Thel^ongra-Gel/Pl^^ maintains an active presence in northem Iraq,from which it coordinates attacks in the predominantly ethn^areas of southeastemTurkey and provides logistical support to forces lhal launch attacks inloTuri^ey,primarily againslTurkish secunty forces, locaof^cials,and villagers who oppose the organization In an effort to demonstrate further that the Iraqi government would not allow Iraq lobecomeasafe havenforten^orisl organizations, Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki appointed the Minislerof State for Izational Securiiy, Shir^anal^^issuesl.^l^non. In accordance with UNSC Resolution 1701, the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAP) strengthened its border presence and deployed 1^,000 troops to pa^^^^in the south, establishing itself in this region for the first time in ^Oyears The LAP ^as assisted by DNIPIL. authorised to deploy up to15,000 ipeacekeeperssoulhoftheLilaniPiver Also,the Internal Security Porcecreatedaspecial unit to combat terrorism and established branches^lerrorislactivityinnorthernandcentralLebanon Despite these steps,[Lebanon remainsasafe haven for terronst activities Hizballah remains the most promiandpowertulten-oristgroupin l^ebanon,withastrong influence among l^ebanon^s large Shia community Hizballah maintains offices in Beirutcountry,has official liaison officers tothe security services, IS represented by elected deputies in pariiament, and has two ministers in the cab^have suspended their participation in the government) Hizballah IS still recognized by the Lebanese govemmeni asalegitimate''resistance group^^The unstable political situation in Lebanon also contributed to enabling foreign Sunni extremists wilh links to AQ to infiltrate Lebanon and to set up cell^^within the Palestinian refugee camps Palestinian extremist groups also have exploited the absence of l^ebanese government authoritywhich have become terrorist safe havens and LAPno^o zones We believe lhat some of these groups,such as AQassocialedAsbatalAnsar.andPatahal^^^^have used the safe haven within the camps to train for ten-onst attacks in l^ebanon properSee Chapter 3,Slate Sponsors ofTen-orism,for discussions on Iran and Syria,which provide safe haven to Hizballah and Palestinian len^onst groups, aused as safe havens by al-Qaida-linked operatives and groups^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ operational structure in Vemen has been weakened and dispersed but concems remain about the organization's attempts to r e ^^ ^ ^ [ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ continues to increase its maritime security capabilities, bul land border security alongproblem,despite increasedVemeni-Saudi cooperation on bilateral securiiy issues.http://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale I^^^s(7120 ReportsPage3of34SoothwestAsiaAfghan-Pakistan 8order.Historically,Islamabad and l^abul have nol exerted compreherisive control overthe mountainous and sparsely populated AfgPakistan border the famed "DurandLineBPiercely independent Pashtun and Baluch tribes straddle the bon:ler, which IS routinely crossed by militants anextremistsP a k i ^ n . T h e Federally AdministeredTribal Areas (PATA)of Pakistan have becomeasafe haven for AQ terrorists and Afghan insurgents since the fall of theTaliban in December 2001 Islamist Deobandi groups and many local tribesmen in thePATAconlinue to resist the government's efforts to improve governance andadministrative control at the expense oflongstanding local autonomy Despite Pakistan's efforts to eliminate threats and establish effect!these tribal areas continued to be terrorist safe havens and sources of instability for Pakistan and its neighbors The government maintains approximately 80,000troops including Anny and Frontier Corps (FC) units, along the Afghanistan border TheU S plans to help modernize and increase the capacity of the FrontierCorps so they can becomeamore effective force The Pakistani govemment expects to close four Afghan refugee campsin which ten^orisls and viol^^^often hide-this year. Pakistan Anny and FC units have targeted and raided AQ and other militant safe havens in IhePATA The failure ofthe tribal leaders in thePATAto fulfil their promisesto the govemment underthe terms ofthe North Waziristan agreement signed in September,failed to stem insurgent infiltrationAfghanistanIn order to increase the central government's writ in theFATA,the Govemment of Pakistan is implementingacomprehensive approach with three prongs: pol^^^securiiy,and developmental Forthe political prong,Pakistan seeks to bolstereffective governance by empowenng local officials For the securiiy prong,Pakistan'sobjective IS to increase the capacity and efficacy of local secunty forces For the developmental prong,the Government of Pakistan has designedac^sustainable development plan for the region The plan concentrates on four sectors (basic human services, natural resources, communication/infraslnjcture, andeconomic development) and, if fully implemented, would cost ^2 billion The plan was developed with the extensive grassroots participation of all stakehwill provide essential economic and livelihood opportunities while upgrading and expanding social services toapopulation at risk for recruitment by extre^^terrorist organizations^ Afghanistan.The Afghan govemmenL in concert with ISAF/NATO forces and the intemational community,continues efforts lo build security on the Afghansideoftheborder The border areas remain contested , however, with ongoing insurgent and terronst attacks, to include al-Qaida activity Taliban ten^oris^attacks, alongside wilh those of associated extremist movements such as Hizb-e-lslamiGulbuddin(HlG) and the Haqqani network, continued throug^^^Afghanistan Taliban-sponsored insurgency, terronsm, and related narcotics cultivation remained particularly prevalent in the South and East of the couwestern HemisphereColombia border RegionThis region includes the borders between Colombia on one side,and Venezuela.Ecuador.Peru Panama,and Brazil on the otherRough terrain.dense forest cover,low population densities,and lack of govemmeni authonty and presence in this area create an area of safe haven for insurgentandterroristgroups,includingespeciallythePevolutionaryArmedForcesofColombia(FAPC)Brazil,Ecuador, Penj, and Panofcontainmentandnon-confrontationwithColombiannarcoterroristgroups,with.however,some confrontations occumng Much of this depends on local decisionsand relationsTheFARC uses remote areas in Colombia's border regions to rest and regroup,procure supplies, and stage and train for terrorist attacks Inaddition,thePARC and another designated ten-orist organization,the National Liberation Army (ELN) regard Venezuelan temtory nearthe border asasafe haven anusetheareaforcross-borderincursions Splinter groups of thePAPC and breakaway members of another designated terrorist organization, the Llnited SelfOefense Forces of Colombia (ALIC), operate in venous parts of Venezuela and are involved in dn^g traffickingThe Tri^8order Area (Argentina^ 8ra^ii^ and Paraguay^.The United States remains concerned that Hizballah and HAMAS are using theTri-^haven in which to raise funds by participating in illicit activities and soliciting donations from extremists within the sizable Mu^^^elsewhere in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay Although there was no con-oborated information that these or other Islamic extremist groups used the regimilitary-type training,or planning often^onst operations, suspected supporters of Islamic terrorist groups, including Hizballah,take advan^^^territory and proximity to Muslim communities in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, and Fez do Iguacu, Brazil, to engage in illegal activity and illicit fugovemments of theTBA have long been concemed with arms and drugs smuggling,document fraud,money laundering,and the manufacture and movement ofcontraband goods through this region In the e a r l y l ^ ^ s , the governments establishedamechanism to address these illicit activi^^^^Strategies^T^^ti^^,Tools for Oisri^ptlng or ^iin^in^tingS^fe HavensCon^ption,poverty,alack of CIVIC institutions and social services, politically repressive governments, inadequate or unjust law enforcement and legaleconditions ten^onsts exploit for recruitment, operational planning or physical safe haven Efforts to build partner capacity and encourage states to cooperate moreeffectivelyatthelocalandregionallevelarekeytodenyingterroristssafehaven U S Ambassadors, as the President's personal representatives abunique responsibility to bring all elements of national power to bear against the terronst enemy They lead interagency CountryTeams that develop strategies tohelp host nations understand the threat and to strengthen their political will and capacity to counter ILDefeatingtheten^oristenemyrequiresacomprehensiveeffortexecutedlocallynationally,regionally and globally Working with partner nat^^^terronst leadership, but incarcerating or killing terronsts will not achieve an end to ten^onsm We must simultaneously eliminate terrorist safe havens, tailoringregional strategies to disaggregate terrorist networi^s, breaking terroristfinancial, travel, communications and intelligence links Fimust address the underlying conditions that tenrorists exploit These include geo-political issues, lack of economic opportunity and po^^^conflict, ungovemed space, or political injusticeRegional Strategic initiative. Building on this understanding, we have worked to develop the Regional Strategic Initiative (RSI^^regional networi^s of interconnected Country Teams The State Department's Bureau of Countertenorism (S/CT) is worthing with ambassadors and interagrepresentatives in key ten-orist theaters of operation to assess the threat and devise collaborative strategies, action plans, and policy recommendationsThe RSI isakey tool in promoting cooperation between our partners in the War onTen^or for example with Malaysia,Indonesia and the Philippines as theyhttp://wwwstategov/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728htm1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale I^^^s (7120 Report)Page4of34confront terrorist transit across the Sulawesi Sea; or among Mauritania,Algeria,Morocco, Niger.Chad,and Mali,to counteraGSPC/AQIM enemy recruitinghiding in the desert that sits astride national borders Terrorists are highly adaptable; defeating them requires both centralized coordination and field autResources and responses must be applied inarapid,flexible,and focused manner The RSI helps achieve this coordinated approachAs of Oecember 2006, RSI strategy groups were in place for Southeast Asia, Iraq and Its neighbors, the Eastern Mediten^anean. the Westem Mediterranean, andtheHomofAfrica These groups are chaired by Ambassadors^ with interagency representatives participating RSI programs focus on developingacommonunderstanding ofthe strategic situation inaregion Osing this shared perspective.networi^ed Country Teams then identify opportunities for collaboration and poolresources not only to eliminate terrorism safe havens, but also to address the conditions that tenorists exploit for recruitmentTenrorists operate without regard to national boundaries Toeffectively counter terrorists, we are worthing to strengthen our regional and transnational partnershipsand increasingly operate inaregional contexL Denying safe haven playsamajor role in undenniningtenonsts'capacity to operate effectively and felementofl^ S countertenorism strategy as well as the cornerstone of UN Security Council Resolution 1373, adopted in September 2001 UNSCR 13^^specifically targets terrorists'ability to move across international borders and find safe haven, to solicit and move funds, and to acquire weapons It a l ^member states to enact laws criminalizing terronst activity and support to enact such lawsCoi^ntering Terrorism on the economic ProntSince the ten^orist attacks of Septemberll.2001.the United States has acted to block funding of terrorists and their supporters and to promote intemationalcooperationagainstthem On September 23,2001.the President signedEG 13224.giving the DnitedStatesapowertul tool to impede ten-onst fundingThisexecutiveorderprovidesameanstodismptthefinancialsupportnetwori^forterroristsandterroristorganizationsbyauthorizingtheUSgovand block assets of foreign individuals and entities that commit, or poseasignificant risk of committing,acts of ten-orism In addition,becausand expansiveness of the financial base of foreign terrorists,the order authorizes theUS govemment to block the assets of individuals and entities that prosupport, offer assistance to, or othen^ise associate with designated terrorists and terrorist organizations The order also covers their subsidiaries, fr^^^organizations, agents, and associates.The Secretary of State.in consultation with the Attomey General and the Secretary of the Treasury,continues to designate PoreignTern^ristOrganizati^^pursuant to Section 219of the Immigration and Nationality Act,as amended These designations playacritical role in theUSfight against ten-ori^^effectivemeansofcurtailing support for ten-orist activities and pressuring groups to get out of the terrorism business Among the consequences of suchadesignation,itisunlawfulforUS citizens or any persons subject to the jurisdiction of theU.S to provide funds or material support toades^financial institutions are also required to freeze the funds of designated FTOs.Executive Order and ForeignTen-orist Organization designations supportUS efforts to curt^ the financing of terrorism and encourage other nations todo th^They internationally stigmatize and isolate designated terrorist entities and individuals They also deter donations or contributions to, and economiwith,named entities and individuals In addition,they heighten public awareness and knowledge of terronst organizations and signal to other governmentsU^concems about named entities and individualsInternational cooperation remains fundamental to our common endeavors for the simple reason that most of the funds used to support terrorism are located outsidethe ^unsdiction of the United States International cooperation is essential to initiatives in fields ranging from intelligence andtargeted financial sanctions to norms and standards of financial regulationUnited Nations Security Council Resolution 1267 and successor resolutions require member states to impose financial and other Sanctisindividuals associated with Usama bin Ladin,theTaliban,or al^aida In 2006,ONSCR 1735 was adopted, clarifying procedures for both l^^^^terrorist groups and entities under 1267 in an effort to increase transparency UNSCR 1735, also encourages member States and the 1267 Committee to update theTaliban section of the 1267 consolidated sanctions list, both by submitting additional names for inclusion on the Consolidate List of individualsassociated with theTaliban,especially those responsible for the recent upsurge ofTaliban violence in Afghanistan,as well as considenngpeti^^^members and/or associates no longer associated with theTaliban In December 2006,the Orilted States and Prance co-sponsored UNSCR 1730 in response toacall for improving procedures for delisting individuals and entities from the 1267 Committee's Consolidated Listln2006,theUnited States and other UN members designatedanumber of individuals and entities:^ On February 8, the United States designated five individuals and four entities for their role in financing the Libya Islamic Fight Group (LIFG), an AQ affiliateknown for engaging in terrorist activity in Libyan and cooperating with AQworidwide Abd Al-RahmanAI-Faqih.GhumaAbd'rabbah,Abdulbaqi Mohammedl^haled.TahirNasuf.and Mohammed Benhammedi were designated pursuant t o E 0 13224 as were the four entities Sara Properties l^td.MeadowbrookInvestments Ltd,Sanabel Relief Agency Ltd,and Ozlam Properties,Ltd On February7,the UN 1267 Sanctions Committee added these individuals andentities and entities to its list of individuals and entities associated with Usama bin Ladin,theTaliban.or alQaidaD On March 23,the United States designated AIManarasatellite owned or controlled by the Iranfunded Hizballah tenonst networi^ Also dNour Radio and the l^ebanese Media group, the parent company to both Al-Manar and Al-Nour^ On April13,the United States designated fourtop leaders of the al-Qaidalinked Southeast Asian terronst organization jemaah Islamiya(Jl) pursuant toEO^13224:AbdullahAnshori,AbuBakarBa'asyir,GunGunRusmanGunawan,andTaufikRifki^ On July 20, the United States designated Abu SufianAlSalambaiMuhammed Ahmed Abd Al-Razziq for high level ties to and support for the al-Qaida networi^pursuant t o E 0 1 3 2 2 4^ On Augusts,the United States designated the Indonesian and Philippine branches ofthe Saudi-based Intemational Islamic Relief Organizati^^facilitating fundraising for alQaida and affiliated terrorist groups pursuant t o E 0 13224The Executive Director of the Eastem Province Branch of 11^^Saudi Arabia,Abd Al Hamid Sulaiman AIMujil,was also designated for using his position to bankroll the alQaida network in SoutheastAsia On August 4,theUN 1267 Sanctions Committee added Abd Al Hamid Sulaiman Al Mujil and the Philippine branch of ^ e l l R O to its list of individuals and ent^^^^with Usama bin Ladin, the Taliban, or al Qaida^ OnAugust30,thelslamicResistanceSupportOrganization(lRSO),akey Hizballah fund-raising organization,was designated under E.O.13224.http://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale l^^^s(7120 ReportsPage5of34^ On September7,the l,,lnited States designated two financial companies and one individual that provided financial support to the Iran funded Hizbal^^^network BaytalMal and the Vousser Company as well as Husayn alShamL the head of BaytalMalandasenior Hizballah leader,were designated underE 0 13224^ On December6. the United States designated nine individuals and two entities located in the tnplefrontier of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay that providedfinancial and logistical support to Hizballah Muhammad^usuf Abdallah,Hamzi Ahmad Barakat,Hatim Ahmad Barakat,Muhammad FayezBarakaLMuhammadTarabainChamas,Saleh Mahmud Fayad,Sobhl Mahmud Fayad.Ali Muhammad l^azan,and ParoukOmain,and two businesses,Case Hamzeand Galerie Page^ were designated underEO 13224^ On De^mber7,the United States designated five individuals underEOl3224 for providing financial support to al-Qaida and other ten-onst organizati^^well as facilitating terrorist activity Mullah l'^ekar,HamedAl Ali,JaberAlJalamah,Mubarak AlBtahali,and Mohamed Moumou were design^^^December7,the UN 1267 Sanctions Committee approved the request that Mohamed Moumou and Mullah l^rekar be added to its list ofindividuals andentitiesassociatedwith Usama bin Ladin,theTaliban,or al-Oaida^ December12,Mohammed Al-GhabraaBritish citizen who provided material and logistical support to al-Qaida and other ten-onst organizations.was added tothe UN 1267 Sanctions Committee listOn December 19, the United States designated Mohammed Al-Ghabra underEO 13224^ As of Oecember 31,2006, the United States has designatedatotal of 469 individuals and entities as terrorists, theirfinanciers,orfacilitators,global community has frozen more than ^153 million in terrorist-related assets8ringingTerrorists to Justice.The Rewards for Justice(RFJ) Program continues to be one of America's most valuable assets in the War onTerror Throughthe Secretary of State may offer rewards for information that prevents or successfully resolves an act of intemational terrorism against the United States Rewardsof up to ^25 million have been authorized for information leading to the capture of Usama bin Laden and other key al-Oaida leaders Since Its inception in 1984,RFJhaspaid more than ^62 million to over 40 people who provided credible infonnation In 2006, rewards totaling ^ l l m i l l i o n were approved forthe successfulresolution of terrorist cases in Afghanistan and the Philippines In January,the Department of State paidareward of ^500,000 to an individual who as^^^authorities in resolvingaterronst case involving al-Qaida operative HabisAbdullaal-SaoubIn January and May,two public rewards ceremonies were jointly sponsored by theUS Embassy in Manila and the Govemment of the Philippines In January,theDepartment paidareward of ^100,000 to an individual who helped the Government of the Philippines bnng to justice Abu Sayyaf Group memberToting CraftHanno In May, the Department paid rewards of ^250,000 each to two persons who supported Filipino authorities in their efforts to bring Rajah Solaiman Movementleader Ahmad Santos to justiceNew initiatives included adding five new reward offers at^lmillion each for key alQaida leaders In June, AbuAyyubalMasn was added to the RFJprogram uponthe death of Abu Musabal-^arqawi,the former leader of al-Qaida iri Iraq In addition,the Secretary approvedareward of up to^1 million forthe AmericanQaida ten-onst Adam Gadahn In October, the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and the PBl conducteda^oint press conference announcing the RPJreward offer anthe ir^lctment of Gadahn on charges of treasonbilateral and l^t^itiiaterai efforts to identify and Address Terrorist Safe HavensThroughout the year.the United States worthed closely with multilateral partners in numerous counterterrorist ^nancing efforts,including the CountCommittee of the United Nations, the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units, thePinancialActionTask Force (FATF),the G8^s Counterterrorism AssistanceGroup(CTAG),and intemational financial institutions In addition,the United States continued its regular dialogue on ten-orism finance with the Euro^^^Since its launch in September2004, the dialogue has served as the framewori^ for ongoing exchanges to promote infonnation sharing and cooperation on FATFand on technical assistance issuesEuropean nations are active participants inavanety of multilateral organizations that contnbuted to counterterronst efforts, including the G8,NATOAction Task Force (FATP),the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe(OSCE),the International Maritime Organization(lMO),and the IntemationalCivilAviation Organization (ICAO) The United States and its partners worthed through these organizations to establish and implement best practices.build thecounterterrorism capabilities of ^'weak but willing''states, and institutionalize the War onTerror globally The Worid Barik and In^^pledged to provide countries with training to increase their capacity to combat money laundenng and terrorist financingThe United ^^tions. The United Nations contint^^d to d^vot^en^i-gy to th^ fight against terrorism The Security Council adopted four resterrorism^ Resolution 1673, adopted in April, reauthorized and improved the mandate of the 1540 committee, which deals with nonproliferation and preventing ten-oristaccess to WMD^ Resolution 1686. adopted in June, extended the mandate of the Intemational Independent Investigation Commission and supported its intention to extendfurther technical assistance to the Lebanese authonties regarding their investigations in ten-orist attacks in l^ebanon since Gctoben 2004^ Resolution 1699, adopted in August, endorsed and encouraged increased cooperation between the UN and INTERPOI^ to help facilitate the implementation ofsanctions, including counterten-onsm sanctions^ Resolution 1735.adopted in December,strengthened the cun-ent sanctions regime against theTaliban,Usama bin Laden,and al-QaidaThe CounterTerrorismCommittee(CTC) was established by Security Council Resolution 1373 after Septemberll,2001 with the goal of enhan^^^UN member states to combat ten^orism TheCounter Ten^orism Committee's Executive Directorate (CTED), established by Resolution1535 in 2004, beoperational in December 2005 CTED's mandate IS to enhance the Committee's ability to monitorthe implementation of Resolution 1373 and to conhcapacity-building work by facilitating technical assistance to member states and promoting closer cooperation and coordination^^regional organizations It also conducts visits in member states to assess the implementation of Resolution 1373 CTED visited ten states in 2006. and the CTC hasapprovedanother17visitsforthefuture Resolution 1624 (2005),conceming incitement to terrorism and denial of safe havens, also directs the CTC,among otherthings, to include implementation of Resolution 1624 (2005) in its dialogue with states CTED is doing so in its visits to member stateshttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htmI/l 0/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale l ^ ^ s (7120 Report)Page6of34The 1267 Sanctions Committee,also established by the Security Council.maintainsalist Of individuals and entities associated with al-Qaida the TaUsamabinLadinwhoaresubjecttointemationalsanctions-assetsfreezetravelbanandarmsembargothat member states are obligated to implement TheCommittee entered into an agreement to exchange information with Interpol with the goal of better enforcing the sanctionsin 2006, the UN General Assembly took several important steps to counterterrorism The General Assembly negotiated and adopted three terrorism-relatedresolutions. 61/40, 61/86, and 61/161,and continued wori^ on the negotiation ofaComprehensive Convention on IntemationalTen-orism The General Assembleconcluded the Intemational Convention forthe Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism in 2005, and,by July 2006,106 states had signed this important newinstrument. In September 2006, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism StrategyThen-UN Secretary General, ^ofi Annan continued to use his office to focus the intemational community on ten-orism He took steps to institutionalize theCounterten-orism Implementation Task Force, which brings together 23 United Nations system entities that address different aspects of terrorism He alsoestablishedafocal point within the Secretariat to help coon^inateacivil society campaign to counterterrorism and suggested the creatioteohnical assistance providers, donors and recipients to exchange infonnation and coordinate effortsUN Secretariat staff of theTerrorism Prevention Branch in Vienna,Austria,continued to help countries build the legal framework necessary to become party to andimplement the intemational counterterrorism conventions and protocolsUN Specialized Agencies are also involved in the work offighting terrorism For example,the International CivilAvlation Organization adopted passport secustandards,and the Intemational Mantime Organization engaged in security-related activities designed to make it harderforterronsts to opershipping arena In February,anew protocol to the 1988 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation andanewprotocol to the 1988 Protocol forthe Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Fixed Platforms on the Continental Shelf opened for signatureThe InternationaEnergy Agency (lAEA)launchedanuclear security action plan to combat the threat of ten-orism involving nuclear and other radioactive matenals Thpromoted more rigorous standards for secunng radioactive sources and released the first intemational export control framework for radioactive sources InFebruary,underaglobalsecurityinitiative,an lAEAsupported operation safely conditioned,packaged,and shipped radioactive neutron sources from tcountries to the United States for ultimate disposition In Apnl,the IAEA supported the removal of potentially weapon-usable highly enriched uranium fromaci^^^researchreactorinUzbekistan In ^uly. two potentially dangerous radioactive devices were successfully secured in the Republic of Georgia Insupported the return to Russia of over 200 kg of highly enriched uranium fromaresearch reactor in GermanyG^ Counterterrorism Actlons.The Group of Eight (G8) the United States.Canada,Prance, Germany,Italy,^apan,Russia,and the United l^ingdom,has beeninstrumental in developing cutting-edge counterten-onsm standards and practices These included enhanced travel document security standards, as well asstrengthened controls over exports and stockpile security to mitigate the ^reat to airports from illicit acquisition of shoulder-fired an^^^^air defense systems, or MANPADS)G8 counterten-onsm initiatives often have an impact well beyond the borders of G8 member states since the group actively seeks to promulgate the standards andpractices it develops to intemational standard-setting organizations In 2006,the G8 completed the Secure andPacilitatedlntemationalTravellnitiproduced two counterterrorism-related documents for the St Petersburg SummitSince 2004, G8 leaders have expressed their commitment to defending against bioterronsm Through the wori^ of the Bioten-orism Experts Group (BTE^),G8efforts to counter bioterronsm include strengthening national and intemational biosurveillance capabilities, increasing protecti^improving bioterrorism response and mitigation capabilities.Securing Critical energy infrastr^ctore. At the July 2006 St. Petersburg Summit, President Bush and the other leaders ofthe G8announcedaplan of a^^^secure global critical energy infrastn^ctures, including:^ Defining and ranking vulnerabilities of cntical energy infrastructure sites;^ Assessing emerging and potential risks of terrorists attacks; and^ Developing best practices for effective secority across ^11 onergysoctorsCoonte^errorismActionGroi^p(CTAG). At the June 2003 Evian Summit, G8 leaders adoptedaplan to build polihcal will and capacity to com^^^globally,and established the Counterterrorism Action Group(CTAG) to implement this plan CTAG supports the UN Counter-Tenorism Committee's efforts tomonitor and promote implementation of UNSCR 1373 by developing an active fonjm for donors to coordinate counterterrorism cooperation with, and assistance to,third countnes CTAG promotes counterterrorism by prioritizing needs, and targeting and coordinating assistance to expand counterterrorism capacity in recipientcountries CTAG also encourages all countnes to meet their obligations under ONSCR 1373 and, for states party to them,the 13intemationalcountertenorismconventions and protocolsUnder the leadership of the rotating G8 presidency, CTAG meets three times per yearwith the active participation of G8 member states, the European Commission,the UN Counterterrorism Committee, and other countnes and organizations Coordination meetings hosted by the local embassy of the G8 presidency were alsoheld among CTAG members'diplomatic missions in recipient countriesIn20l^,CTAG coordinated diplomatic,donor cooperation,and donor assistance efforts, including:^ Cooperated with the UN Counterterrorism Committee Executive Directorate(CTEO) during country visits by contributing significantly to thevisits, meeting with CTED dunng those visits, and monitoring the implementation by visited countries of the CTC^s recommendations:^ Facilitated universal adherence to the 13intemational counterterronsm conventions and protocols by encouraging more thanadozen countries to approveunratified instruments;^ Focused counterterronsm donor assistance on n^eds in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) region, especially port and mantime security gaps, inconcert with APEC's Counterterrorism Task Force;http://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter 5 - Terrorist Safe H ^ n s (7120 Report)Page 7 of 34^ Coordinated donor assistance to help countnes in the Asia and South America assess and improve airport security; and^ Promoted and assisting implementation oftravel security and facilitation standards and practices being developed by the G8 under Its Secure and FacilitateInternationalTravel Initiative (SAPTI)^Ir^ncial Action Ta^kPorce(PAT^)Underthe Department ofTreasury's leadership, the United States playedastrong role in developing new i^^^^^FATF to meet evolving anti-money laundering and counterten^orism finance threatsThe United States becameaco-chairwith Italy,ofthe newly createdIntemational Cooperation Review Group to examine AML/CTF systemic threats and participated in majorFATP studies (e.g.,Trade-Based Money Laundering) andFATP mutual evaluations^^ropean Union (^U).The United States and the European Union's Judicial Cooperation Unit (Eurojust) agreed to improve cooperation and information exc^^amonginvestigatorsandprosecutors,postingaUS l^iaison Prosecutor at Eurojust We continue to make progress toward ratification and entry into force o f tUSEU Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Agreements between the United States and EU member states Expert level discussions have begun on mutualrecognitionoftheEUAuthonzedEconomicOperatorprovisionsandtheUS Customs-Trade Partnership AgainstTen^onsm We have begunapilot project to theContainer Security Initiative for feeder ports,to increase security of goods transiting our ports.and continue to work jointly to refine our risk assessments Apil^^Southampton under theUS Secure Freight Initiative should improve detection and response capabilities for high-risk container trafficIn October, the Onited States and the EU concluded an interim agreement on the processing of passenger name record data We are studying the comparability ofour airport assessment programs and will continue to refine international airport security measures, as in our successful joint effort to establi^^for liqt^ids in carry-on baggager e u n i t e d States and the EU continued to improve procedures for information shanng and for proactively ImplementingFATF Special Recommendations,includenforcing cash declaration regulations fortravelers and getting private sectorfinancial institutions to improve implementatioto exchange information and best practices in expert level discussions In 2006. conferences on terrorism finance and money laundering issues were held withsanctions implementers, analysts.and prosecutors and investigators We are working onapublic outreach statement on faimess and transparency in theimplementation of sanctions regimesOrganization for Security and Cooperation In ^orope(OSC^). The United States worthed with the OSCE to establish and implement best counterterrorismpractices and help build the capacity of OSCE members OSCE members committed themselves to becoming parties to the 13UNten-onsm conventions andprotocols, to work together to modemize travel documents and shipping container security, to prevent and suppress the financing of terronst organizations and toimplement UNSC Resolution 1540 to counter WMD (related matenals and the means of delivery) proliferation The OSCE also held two regional workshops onICAO^s minimum secunty standards for handling and issuance of passports, sponsored visits by ICAO and other experts to provide technical advice to requestingcountries on new travel document security features, and increased OSCE countries'cooperation with Interpol in reporting lost or stolen passports The OSCE. inconjunction with the UNODC. held its second experts workshop in 2006 on promoting legal cooperation in criminal matters as related to tenonsm, which coveredsuch issues as extradition and mutual legal assistance The OSCE also heldaconference on countering the use of the Intemet for terronst purposesf^orth Atlantic Treaty Organi^tlon(f^ATO).The North AtlanticTreaty Organization (^ATO)playsakey role in combating tenorism at therEurope First and foremost, NATO IS contributing to the War onTerror by leading security and stability operations in Afghanistan and continuing Operation ActivEndeavor(OAE),anaval operation that aims to combat tenorism by monitoring mantime traffic in the Mediten-anean The Alliance IS also engaged inafarreachingtransfom^ation of its forces and capabilities to better deter and defend against21^^ Century threats, including terrorism,and is working closely with partnand organizations to ensure interoperability of forces and broad cooperationTrans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP).TheTransSaharaCountertenorism Partnership (TSCTP)isamulti-faceted,multi-year strat^^defeating terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation amforces,promotingdemocraticgovemance,discreditingterroristideology and reinforcing bilateral military ties with the United States The overall goals are toenhance the indigenous capacities of govemments in the pan-Sahel(Mauntania, Mali, Chad, and Niger, as well as Nigeria and Senegal) to confront the challengeposed by ten-orist organizations in the region, and to facilitate cooperation between those countnes and our Maghreb partners (Morocco, Algeriacombating terrorism See Chapter 2,Counf^ reports, A ^ ^ , f o r further information on theTSCTPThe African Unlon.TheAfncan Union (AO) has several counterterrorism legal instruments,includingaConvention on Prevention and Combating ofTerronsm(1999).a2002 ^ro^ooo^^o^^eCor^venf^ori,ar^da2^04^ano/^Ac^^on SeeChapter2,Co^nrry^ep^Association of Southeast Asian Nations ( A S ^ ^ ) and the A S ^ N Regional Por^m(ARP).The United States worths closely with the tenmemberAsso^^^^of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN), comprising Brunei. Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia. Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore Thailand, and Vietnam to enhancecounterterronsm cooperation In ^uly 2006,Secretary of State Rice and herASEAN counterparts signed the "Framework Document forthe Plan of Action toImplement the ASEANUS Enhanced Partnership'The Plan of Action identifiesarange of measures to strengthen cooperation on maritime security.lawenforcement, border security, information shanng, suppressing illicit money transfers and terronst financial flows, curbing the abuse of NGOs and chariti^^^as on othertransnational crime issues.The United States actively participates in counterterrorism-related activities of the 26-member ASEAN Regional Forum(ARF), including the annual meetings on counterterronsm and transnational crime The United States has continued efforts to increase mantimesecuntcooperation by co chainng with Singapore an ARP confidence-building measure in 2005 focused on preventing and countering terrorist attacks and other unl^acts. This event built on earlier efforts to strengthen agreement on the key elements of maritime security among participants Subsequent events, hosted by Indiaand Japan respectively, have focused on expanding cooperation in capacity building for maritime security In July of 2005 ARP Foreign Ministers ad^^^''Statement on Infomiation Sharing and Intelligence Exchange and Document Integrity and Security in Enhancing Cooperation to CombatTerronsm and oth^^Transnational Cnmes" in which ministers committed to improve cooperation among participants in these areasAsia Pacific economic Cooperation (AP^C).The 21 member economies of APEC (Australia,Brunei,Canada.Chile, China.Hong l^Orig,Indonesia.Japan,Republicofl^orea, Malaysia, Mexico, NewZealand, Papua NewGuinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, ChineseTaipei, Thailand, the Unihttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5TerroristSafeF^^s(7120 Report)^Page8of34Vietnam)are committed to creatingasafeenvironment forthe movement Of goods, services,and people throughouttheregion.TheAPECCountertenonsmTaskPorce(CTI^F) was established in 2003 to coordinate implementation of Leaders'and Ministers'statements on counterterrorism and nonproliferation The UniteStates worths within APEC to dismantle transnational terrorist groups and to eliminate the severe and growing danger posed by proliferation of weapons of massdestruction and their means of deliveryIn 2006, with Australian and Chilean co-sponsorship, the United States introduced the first bioten-orism/biodefense initiative in APEC to prot^^deliberate contamination TheUnitedStates cohosted an expertslevel workshop in Bangkok in November to share experiences and develop best practices APECIS also committed to bolstenng regional maritime and port secunty. and to strengthening intemational non-proliferation regimes In 2005, APEC members adoptedthePramewori^ for SecureTrade and provided capacity building to seven economies to assist with implementation of the International Ship and Port FacilitySecurity code APEC export control systemswere strengthened through capacity building initiatives, such as the 2005 Export Control Conference for APECEconomies APEC also ensured the safe handling of radioactive sources through an agreement to implement the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Codeof Conduct and Import/Export Guidelines for Radioactive Sources by the end of 2006 Airport Security was further enhanced through APEC members'agreement toundertake Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) Vulnerability Assessments at international airports based on ICAO or similarintemationalguidel^^^APEC enhanced travel security through improvements in travel document secunty standards and the launch ofapilot project to share lost and stolen passport databetween Australia, NewZealand, end the United States APEC also continues to combat terroristfinancing in APEC economies through efforts to strengthenfinancial intelligence unitsOAS inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CiCT^).ClCTE delivered more than ^5 million in counterterrorism capacity-building assistance in the reCICTE provided training to nearly 500 port and airport security officials from 29 member states to help meet the requirements of the Intemational MaritimeOrganization's International Ship and PortFacility Security (ISPS)codeand the International CivilAviation Organization's (ICAO) new air secCICTE advised15member state govemments on how to meet the requirements of UNSCR 1373.the13international conventions and protocols relating toterrorism,and the Inter-American Convention againstTerrorism(IACAT),which complements and expands on international conventions and protocols CICTE alsoorganized its sixth annual regular session in Bogota, ColombiaThree Pio^OrieOrot,^p on Tri-8order Area Secority (3^1). Argentina hostedameeting of the 3^1Group (Argentina,Brazil,Paraguay,and the UniDecember Delegates highlighted the importance of early warnings among States and the immediate exchange of infonnation to prevent and combat illegalactivities,end to deny refuge to those who finance.plan.or commit acts of ten-orism In November.Brazil inauguratedanew Regional IntelligenIguacu, dedicated to coordinating intelligence activities of the police forces ofArgentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, and invited Argentina and Paraguay to send officialrepresentatives to help staff the centerLong-Term Goals and Programs/Actions Designed to Redoce Conditions that Allow Terrorist Safe Havens to ^ormThe l ^ i d d l e ^ s t Partnership initiative. As President Bush noted, when an' entire region sees the promise of freedom in its midsL the terrorist ideologybecome more and more irrelevant.until that day when it is viewed with contempt or ignored altogether"Conversely,systems characterized by an absence ofpolitical choice, transparent govemance, economic opportunities, and personal freedoms can become incubators for extremism, hate, and violenceTothis end.in 2006,the State Department's Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPl) continued to provide tangible support to reformers in the region so democracycouldspread education could thrive.economies could grow,and women could be empowered Worthing in16countries and the Palestinian tenitori^^^invested in programs ranging from campaign schools to civic education to an Arab businesswomen's network Despit^adifficult political environment in the regionthroughout the year,refonners continued to provide reasons to believe that positive change IS possible for the people of the Middle East Examples of MEPl's workwith reformers include the followingPolitical^ MEPIsupported local and regional election monitors in ^emenreportedaprocess with an absence of the violence of previous electoral contests in thecountry and with an opposition candidate garnering over 20 percent of the vote against the incumbent leader,ararity in the region Technical support also wasprovided to all parties contesting provincial and municipal elections on the same day,^ M^PIsoppon^ddon^estic monitors in ^^hr^ir^oi^^rvedth^ most i:^mpetitive elections in the kingdomshi^torywitn^turr^^without the opposition boycotts that undermined the last round of elections ;^ Provided technical assistance to women candidates and voter awareness campaigns in l^uwait's first pariiamentary elections through universal suffrage asl^uwaitjoined Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, and the UAE in enfranchising women in electoral processes:^ Continued to provide technical assistance to parties and candidates across the region in anticipation of new rounds of municipal and parliamentary elections2007;^ Strengthened the role of civil society in the democratic process by facilitating dialogue among activists, NGOs, and their respective governmentframework of the G8's Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative and by awarding direct grants to numerous civil society organizations across the regionto advance the Freedom Agenda; and^ Trained journalists in free and independent media techniques to support greater transparency and accountability in their countnesProvided technical and other assistance in support of successfully completed free trade agreements with Bahrain and Oman;Expanded trade capacity of Arab countries with training and technical assistance;anumber of Gulf countries are drafting new labor laws and updating newcustoms codes and agricultural import/export standards:Provided entrepreneunal training for more than 300 participants, almost half of them women, from 16 Middle Eastern and North African countnes, with 35alumni going on to start or expand businesses, At least 500 new jobs have been created following their participation in MEPl programs;Extended credit and services to small and medium-sized businesses through peer consultation and training for regional banks and financial organizati^^Establishedself-sustainingJuniorAchievementchaptersin 12countries throughout the Middle East, with more than 10,000 students partici^^^http://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter 5 - Terrorist Safe I j ^ ^ s (7120 Report)Page 9 of 34public-pnv9te p9rtnerships that assisted in the sustain9bilit/ of Junior Achievement chepters; andExpanded commercial and legal reform efforts in the Gulf by working to updgte legal cumojla at law schools in Qatar and Oman, update commercial codes tomeet intem9tion9l st9nd9rds in B9hr9in 9nd Oman, and provide continuing education programs for the judiciary•Provided English language study to more than 4,500 underserved youth from 13 countries in the Middle East through a micro-scholarship program, bnngingthe total number of students reached with MEPl support to more than 12,000;•Empowered young, highly motivated Arab men and women with leadership, problem-solving, and entrepreneunal skills through intensive five-week institutes.More than 200 students have participated, and most have started their own civic projects back home:•Supported a regional avic-education network that promotes youth civic awareness and involvement. Examples of resulting youth-led projects included startingafter-school classes for poor students and improving health services at local hospitals. The program is being widely accepted and adopted; for example,education officials committed to adopting Project Citizen in all schools in Man-akesh, Morocco; and•Promoted critical thinking and independent reading with an initiative to provide more than 80 titles of high-quality Amencan children's books to more than3,000 schools in three Middle Eastem countries.Women's Empowerment• Strengthened the technology, business and advocacy skills of women across six Gulf nations;•Established the first U.S.-Middle East Partnership for Breast Cancer Awareness and Research, which activated women across the region in private-publicpartnerships, civic engagement, and netvmrkingi•Established business network hubs in six countries, focusing on training, professional development, and information shanng on lavre, business opportunities,skills, and the global economy; and•Focused on women's nghts particularly family law, in three Gulf states and Morocco,Antiterrorism Assistance Program (ATA) The Antiterrorism Assistance Program (ATA) provides partner countnes with the training, equipment, and technologyneeded to increase their capabilities to find and arrest terrorists, and to build the kind of cooperation and interactivity between law enforcement officers that has alasting Impact,At the operational level, ATA alumni have led the investigation of a number of recent terrorist attacks In Indonesia, a special unit trained and equipped by DS/ATAtracked SE Asia's most wanted ten-orist, Dr. Azahan The suspect refused to give himself up and was killed along with another accomplice. Azahan and hisaccomplice were responsible for the Bali bombing in 2002, the J W Marriott attack in 2003, and the bombing of the Australian Embassy in 2004 The ATA programhas also been crucial in helping local initiatives take root In Tanzania, ATA assistance mapped out the foundation for the establishment of a counterten-onsm centerand the implementation of an innovative mechanism to regulariy communicate with Kenyan counterparts. In Colombia, ATA financed a training facility in Sibate,which has become an international training hub for officials across the Hemisphere,ATA sponsored 289 courses and technical consultations and trained approximately 4,816 participants from 77 countries in 2006 In its two-decade long existence,ATA has trained more than 57.116 students from 151 countries, providing programs tailored to the needs of each partner nation and to local conditions Suchtraining included crisis management and response, cyber terrorism, dignitary protection, bomb detection, airport security, border control, kidnap intervention andhostage negotiation and rescue, response to inadents involving weapons of mass destruction, countenng terrorist finance, and interdiction of terrorist organizations.Alt courses emphasized law enforcement under the mle of law and respect for human nghts.Terrorist interdiction Program (TIP) The Terronst Interdiction Program (TIP) assisted pnority countries at risk of terrorist activity to enhance their border securitycapabilities. TIP provided participating countries with a computenzed watch listing system to identify suspect travelers at air, land, or sea ports of entry, TIP furtherpromotes expanded cooperation and close liaison with host govemments in the areas of rule of law, anticorruption, and law enforcement. Since 2001, the StaleDepartment has provided TIP assistance to more than 20 countries, assistance that was instrumental in impeding tenonst travel. Hundreds of individuals travelingon stolen passports in Pakistan, as well as wanted cnminals, narcotics smugglers, and human traffickers have been identified and intercepted worldwide. TheTerronst Interdiction Program complements other counterterronsm-related U S Govemment efforts to enhance aviation, border, cyber, maritime, and transportationsecuntyCounterterronst Finance Training, In response to the development of new intemational standards against the growing threat of illicit cash couners and bulk cashsmuggling, the State Department worited with its interagency partners to develop a training course on interdicting bulk cash smuggling This course providedoperational training to foreign customs officers, investigators, and other officials on the detection, interdiction, analysis, investigation, and seizure of illicit crossborder cash used to facilitate terronsm and criminal activities. The training, conducted in three Middle Eastem countnes, emphasized the need to investigate thesource, destination, and organization behind cash smuggling, and stressed FATF requirements on reporting of outbound/inbound currency and working withFinancial Intelligence Units, Based on the vulnerabilities uncovered dunng this training, one country moved aggressively to implement new laws and regulations.Due to high demand, the State Department is planning to increase the number of courses offered and to provide this training to countnes in other geographicalregionsIncreasing Economic Development. Development is central to the President's National Security Strategy Expanding Vne circle of prosperity is critical to our nationalsecunty Poverty, weak institutions, and corruption can tum nations of great potential into recruiting grounds for terronsts Well-conceived targeted aid is a potentialleveraging instrument that can help countnes implement sound economic policies, helping to improve the conditions that ten'orists exploit.The Millennium Challenge Account, established by Congress in 2004 based on President Bush's concept, represents a new model for achieving transformationaldevelopment by providing assistance to those countries that njle justly, invest in their people and encourage economic freedom The prospect of an MCA Compactprovides a powerful incentive for the poorest countries to reform. Good govemance and sound policies, not foreign aid, are the keys to economic development U S,http://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htmI/l 0/2013Chapter 5 - Terrorist Safes(7120 Report)Page 10 of34private sector flows to the developing world, including trade and investment ($450,2 billion in 2004), dwarf our foreign aid ($19,7 billion). Unutilized C9pit9l indeveloping countries, owing to week policies end poor property rights, is estimated to be as high as $9 trillionDebt relief for the poorest is another element ofour development stretegy Our long-st9nding support for the Heevily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, aswell as for the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MORI) introduced in 2006, promotes debt sustainability, reduces the likelihood of debt distress end enebles thepoorest countnes to devote additional resources to reducing poverty and promoting economic growth Our aggressive multilateral and bilateral trade agenda toopen agricultural and non-agncultural markets and liberalize fin9na9l services, tr9nsport9tion, telecommunicetions, and government procurement all supportdevelopment.The U S- Agency for International Development (USAID), cames out foreign assistance programs that support key U S foreign policy interests and have a positivepublic diplomacy impact for many people in the developing worid. USAID'S humanitanan aid programs and its activities in the areas of economic growth, agriculture,trade, health, democracy, and conflict prevention help reduce the risk of countries becoming breeding grounds for ten-orism. In Afghahist9n, USAID is helping tobuild 9 S9fe, stable society that meets the needs of its people and eliminates an environment in which ten-onst groups have flounshed. USAID has been on the frontlines of support to tsunami-affected countnes, garnenng goodwill toward the United States among people in the hardest-hit areas Our rapid humanitananassistance and generous reconstruction pledge in response to the devastating South Asian earthquake helped Pakistan in its hour of need tangibly changinghearts and minds about the U S. role in this predominately f^uslim country5.2. Support for PakistanThe 9/11 Commission recommended that the United States "make the difficult long-term commitment to the future of Pakistan" and "support Pakistan's govemmentin Its stoiggle against extremists with a comprehensive effort that extends from military aid to support for better education, so long as Pakistan's leaders remainwilling to make difficult choices of their own"Composition and Levels of Assistance, Including Security and Other AssistahceThe USG commitment to a long-term relationship with Pakisten is highlighted by President Bush's pledge to Pakisteni President Mushan-af to seek from Congress$3 billion in Economic Support Funds (ESF) and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) for Pakistan dunng the five-year period from FY-2005 through FY-2009. Inaddition to Economic Support Funds and Foreign Military Financing, the United States Govemment is also providing other forms of assistance to Pakistan, includingfunding for Child Survival and Health (CSH), Development Assistance (DA), International Military Education and Training (IMET), Intemational Narcotics and LawEnforcement (INCLE), Anti-Terrorism Assistance (NADR-ATA), Export Control and Border Security (NADR-EXBS), Small Amis and Light Weapons (NADR-SALW),Terrorism Interdiction Programs (NAOR-TIP), Food for Peace (P L, 480 Title I & II), and Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance (ERMA). The chart belowoffers a companson of levels:Assistance to Pakistan($ in millions)AccountFY-2005FY-2006(IncludesFY-2006FY-2007FY-2006SupplementalRequestRequest5 30021.70039 800Supplemental.)CSH21 00022.757DA29 00026.9901050029 00018.000ESF297 600296 59540.500350 000382 900FMF298.800297 000-300 000300 000IMETINCLENADR-ATANADR-CTFNADR-EXBS1 8852.0372 0752 00032 15034 9725.60032 00060516.8858 6908.00001000 4001 0000 7000 6000 5000 9001 0001 0000.900TBDTBD-NADR-SALWNADR-TIP0 50017 675P L 480 Title 1 &II70 OOOIDFATOTAL-0ERMA688 386706 609126 300738 565785 000Approximately $706.6 million in U.S. assistance was provided to Pakistan from monies appropriated for Fiscal Year 2006 In addition, the Administration received asupplemental Fiscal Year 2006 appropriation from Congress for $126.3 million for Pakistan to meet relief needs from the devastating October 8, 2005. earthquakeTTie Administration requested $738,565 million in assistance for Pakistan for Fiscal Year 2007 and is requesting $785 million for Fiscal Year 2008http://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5TerroristSaleI^^^s(7120 Report)^Pagellof34The mix ofUSassistance for Pakistan reflects the diverse ways that theOS Government is cooperating with Pakistan in pursuit Of criticalUSpol^^These include prosecuting the War on Terror; countenng nuclear proliferation: buildingastable and democratic Afghanistan,ensuring peace and stability in S^^^Asia through the continuation of the India-Pakistan reconciliation process; supporting Pakistan's efforts to becomeamodern,prosperous, democratic state, andassisting it in recovering from the October 8. 2005, earthquake.U S Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funding for Pakistan is designed to enhance Pakistan's capabilities in the War on Terror; help it to better control its bmeet Its legitimate defense needs; and make Pakistan more secure so that It can more readily take the steps necessary to buildadurablepeac^ with all itsneighbors thus fostering secunty and stability throughout the South Asia region PMF IS being used by Pakistan to purchase helicopters, aircraft, weapons systems,munitions, and other equipment, which, ^r^^era^^a, has enabled Pakistan's armed forces to operate effectively against foreign ten-ori^^^border areas along the Pakistan Afghanistanborder The Pakistani military is continuing major military operationsalong that border, wh^the capture or death of several hundred foreign terrorists end militants, at the expense of the lives of several hundred Pakistani servicemenInternational Military Education andTraining (IMET) assistance for Pakistan complements Foreign Military Financing by providing trainingthe aim of promoting military-to-military cooperation, increased professionalism, and enhanced military interoperability between Pakistan andIMETalso assists Pakistan in developing expertise and systems to more effectively manage its defense establishment; builds technical skills for be^andmaintenanceofUS^originequipment^ and promotes military subordination to democratic civilian rule and respectfor human rights For FiscalYear 200Administration's International Military Education andTraining request is $20million.aslight decrease overthe $2075millionreque^^^l^easores to EnsorethatAssl^tanceHa^ the Greatest l.^ong-Term positive impact on the Welfare of Pakistani People and The^AgainstTerrorEconomic SupportFunds,DevelopmentAssistance,and Child Survival and Health assistance is being used to improve the lives of ordinary Pakistanis-^groundwori^ forthe country's sustained economic growth; and strengthen social.polifical,and economicinstitutions, thus alleviating the cond^^^^extremismwhiledemonstratingthattheUS interest in Pakistan extends beyond the War onTerror to concem for the Pakistani people asawhole EconomicSupport Funds reduced Pakistan's bilateral debt to the United States by $1 billion in Fiscal Year 2003 andafurther $460 million in Fiscal^reduction, together with prior comprehensive donor debt rescheduling, enabled Pakistan to reduce its total sovereign debt from 89 percent of gross domesticproduct in 2000 to64 percent of gross domestic product in 2004,laying the groundwork for the implementation of economic reforms designed to stabilize itsmacroeconomic environment, boost economic growth, and reduce povertyDuring Fiscal Year 2007, $200 million in Economic Support Funds are being provided to the Govemment of Pakistan as budget support to enable the country tocarry out further economic and social reforms, expand Its poverty alleviation programs, and reform and expand access to public education and health carePakistan's use of this money is guided by the Shared Objeotives agreed to with theUS GovernmentAtotal of approximately $61 million in FiscalYear 2007 Economic Support Funds and Development Assistance funds ($69 million in PiscalYear 06) were requestedto implement education reform programs in Pakistan and support the Govemment of Pakistan's education sector reform initiative Pakistan's literacy rate greatlyhampersitsabilitytodevelopandexpanditseconomicbase Literacy averages 49 percent nationwide and in Pakistan's remote tribal areas can be as low a s 0 5 ^for women The dearth of good public schools results in thousands of youth attending private madrassas, schools teaching only religious subjects, some of whichalso inculcatearadicaljihadist ideology Totackle these problems,US Govemmentfunded education programs in Pakistan are aimed at improving the quality ofeducation in Pakistani primary and secondary schools, especially in Baluchistan and Sindh provinces: improving eariy childhood education; t^^^increasing parental and community involvement in schools,ensuring that teachers have adequate classroom matenals; and promoting the development ofanewgeneration of Pakistani leaders by providing scholarships for disadvantaged students to obtainahigher education Adult and youth literacy educationtargeting out^fschool youth and illiterate adult populations,withafocus on women and giris In addition,student exchanges playalarge part in our eefforts^wlthPakistan'sFulbright program being the largest in the world.DemocratizationisakeyfocusofUS Govemment assistance toward Pakistan One of the fundamental tools for comba^ng terrorism over the longterm isdemocracy The programs include several mutually reinforcing components legislative trairiirig to increase the effectiveriess,trerisparPakistanis provincial and national parliaments,political pany strengthening focused on identifying and training young reformers-tomorrow's politi^^support for increased women's political participation; civil society development designed to increase the capacity of indigenous nongovernmental organi^^^^serve as policy watchdogs and promote homan nghts, and independent media training for journalistsPakistan trails its South Asian neighbors in almost all key health areas matemal and infant mortality; safe, affordable family planning: and control of in^diseases FiscalYear 2007 Child Survival and Health funds will be used to increase availability of maternal and child health services, especially in n^raimprove healthcare at the provincial and distnct level through better resource management: to help maintain Pakistan's low human immunodeficiency vir^^prevalence rate by increasing awareness; to control other infectious diseases, and to improve water and sanitationThroughout 2007.Economic SupportPunds,Development Assistance.and Child Survival and Health will support reconstruction efforts to rebuild.furnish,ansupply health and education sector infrastructure and human resource capacities; to re-establish the livelihoods of earthquake victims-to relocate di^^^and to train skilled and unskilled individuals In vocational training, agriculture and livestock development, asset fonhafiori,enterpr^market restoration.The Administration IS requesting $3829million in Economic Support Funds and $398million in Child Survival and Health for Pakistan for PiscalYear 2combined increase of $51 million from its PiscalYear 2007 requestThis increase is designed to complement Musharraf's Federally AdministeredTribal AreasSustainable Development Plan to improve governance, provide security, and encourage economic development of the border area between Afghanistan andPakistan These funds will also help meet earthquake reconstruction needs withafocus on rebuilding education,economic, social and health care infrastructure,including human capital.in the earthquake zone The Administration IS requesting for FiscalYear2008$18million in Development Assistance and $398mil^^^Child Survival and Health fi.^nds,adecline from the $29 requested for DevelopmentAssistance and an increase from the $217requested for Child Survival andhttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^7^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Health in PiscalYear 2007International Narcotics and Law Enforcement funds for Pakistan continue to strengthen border security and enable law enforcement access to remote areas alongthe Pak-Afghan border-thus enhancing the country's capability to interdict traffickers in narcotics, arms, persons, and contraband, as well as terroristsInternational Narcotics and Law Enforcement funds are used to reform, strengthen, and improve cooperation among Pakistan's law enforcement agencies all ofvi^ich play an important role in the War onTerror International Narcotics and Law Enforcement funds supportacountemarcotics Air Wing based in QuettaBaluchistan, operated by Pakistan s Interior Ministry, which includes fixed-wing surveillance aircraft and Huey II helicopters InternationaEnforcement funds are used to procure vehicles and communications, surveillance, and related equipment for border control and counter-nar^^^Bordersecunty roads that facilitate law enforcement access to inaccessible parts of Pakistan's Federally AdministeredTribal Areas are also funded by 1^^^Narcotics and Law EnforcemenL as are an Automated Fingerprint Identification System and National Criminal Database, and training and equipmeenforcement investigative skills and forensic capacities In tackling poppy cultivation. International Narcotics and Law Enforcement funds alsoaltemative livelihood, and demand reduction programsNonproliferation, Anti ten^rism,Demining, and Related Programs/^port Control and Related Border Secunty assistance strengthens Pakis^^^system and thus prevents weapons of mass destruction and related technology transfers that raise proliferation concems Nonproliferation, Anti ten-orismDemining, and Related Programs/Export Control and Related Border Security funds are used for nonproliferation export control training addressing legal/regul^^^reform, export licensing systems, and customs enforcement: for general inspection and weapons of mass destruction detection training for border control pers^^andfor procuring specialized radiation/chemical-detection equipment The Administration's $500,000 PiscalYear 2008 request in Nonproliferation^Deminlng,and Related Programs/Export Control and Related Border Security assistance representsaslight decrease from the $600,000 requestedfor PiscalYear2007Nonproliferation,Anti-terrorism,Demining,and Related Programs/Anti-ten-orism Assistance funding for Pakistan enhances the capabilities of elite nationalsunits responsible for counterterrorism investigations and tactical operations Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining. and Related ProgAssistance trained the Special Investigation Group and crisis response teams that were integral in making arrests after the December 2003 assassination attemptson President Musharraf and the May 2004 car bombs neartheUSConsulate in KarachLThe Administration's PiscalYear 2008 request of $8 million forNonproliferation, Anti-tenorism, Demining, and Related Programs/Anti-ten-orism Assistance representsadecreasefrom the$8 59 million request^^2007Nonproliferation,Anti terrorism, Demining. and Related Programs/Ten-orism Interdiction Programs funding for Pakistan IS being used to sIdentification Secure Comparison Evaluation System automated border control system, including to sustain ongoing program operations and to expand coverage toadditional Pakistani ports-of^ritry The Administration is requesting $900,000 in Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism. Demining, and Related Programs/Ten-oriInterdic^on Programs funds for Pakistan for PiscalYear 2i^8aslight decrease from the$1 million requested for Fiscal Year 20^7The Administration IS requesting $400,000 in Nonproliferation,Anti-terrorism,Demining,and Related Programs/Counter-Terrorism Finance funds for PiscalYear2008,anincreasefromthe$100,000requestedinFiscalYear2007,tosupportassignmentofaresidentlegaladvisortoUSEmbassy Islamabad Thelegaladvisorwill assist the Pakistani govemment in establishing the counter-terrorist finance infrastructure needed to prevent money fiows to terrorist group^ea^ore^toAlleviateOl^cuities^l^isonderstandings^ and Complications in U.S -PakistanI RelationsThe United States end Pakistan engage in extensive consultations to ensure thatUSforeign assistance has the greatest long-tenn benefit for Pakistanis and alsoenhances the country's ability to cooperate in the global War onTerror This IS exemplified by the annual consultations that result in mutually-agreed SharedObjectives for the Govemment of Pakistan's use of $200 million in Economic SupportPunds in direct budget support The United States also participates in theannual Pakistan Development Fon^m, which brings together the Government of Pakistan and bilateral and multilateral donors to discuss Pakistan's developme^^priorities and assistance needs The United States holds regular consultations with major donors, including the European Union, Japan, and Worid Bank^that assistance to Pakistan is effectively coordinated and that its impact is maximized.U 5 public diplomacy programs ir^Paki^tar^piayaontical role in improving mt^toeli^nderst^nding,garnering Pakistani supportPakistanirefonns:andlayingthefoundationforastable,productive,long-termUS-PakistanrelationshipUS public diplomacy efforts inc^exchanges to bring Pakistani students, journalists, academics,politicians,and other opinion leaders to theUS for academic programs and study tours; placementof articles and opinion pieces in the Pakistani media and interaction with Pakistani journalists to explainO S policies: and public speechUS Ambassador to Pakistan,otherUS mission staff, and American exchange visitors^.3. Collaboration ^ t h S a i ^ d i ArabiaStep^ to i n ^ t l t i ^ o n a l l ^ and ^akei^ore Transparent Govemment-to-Govemment RelationsTheUS-Saudi Strategic Dialogue,inaugurated in November 2005 by Secretary Rice and Foreign Minister Saudal-Faisal and reporting to President Bush and l^ingAbdullah,continues to be the highest level institutionalized forum for coordinatingUS and Saudi interestsThe Strategic Dialogue consists of six w^^^^focusing on human development, economy, energy, consular affairs, military cooperation, and counterten-orism These Strategic Dialogue working groups mee^periodically to address issues ranging from reform to human rights to visas to child custody cases to security cooperation Ministerial-level meetings, deel^^^bilateral issues of strategic importance, are held es part of the Strategic DialogueIntelligence and Security Cooperation in the Pight against IslamicTerrorismThe United States and Saudi Arabia have an ongoing and robust dialogue onafull range of counterten-onsm issues, including regular high-level discussiclosewori^ing-levelcollaboration Saudi cooperation in this area IS significant, and U.S law enforcement and intelligence agencieshttp://www.stategov/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728htm1/10/2013Chapter5TerroristSafeI^^s(7l20 Report)^Pagel3of34benefitgreatlyfromSaudiinformationandintelligenceonindividualsandorganizations U S law enforcement agencies have provided countertenonsmtraininSaudi security services in both Saudi Arabia and in the United States We hope to continue to build upon past cooperation and training through additional CTinitiativesIn 2006, Sat^di Arabia improved its capabilities to disrupt terrorist organizations and operations and attempted to preepotential attacks Since May 2003, the Saudi govemment has killed or captured el-Oaida's operational Saudi-besed senior leadership, as well as almost al^^network's key operatives and many of the l^ingdom's most wanted individualsSeudi security forces killed or captured within four months all of the members oftheel-QaidacellthatconductedtheFebruary2006attackonAramco'sAbqaiqfacilityOn August 21 five wanted terrorists surrendered in response to govemmentassurances in the media that they would receive mitigated sentences The Saudi government continues to arrest individuals associated with terrorism, includingnascent operational cells and members of facilitation networks for terrorist groups in Iraq and South Asia, including al-QaidaIn November 2006, the Saudi govemment announced that security forces had captured 136 known or suspected terrorists or those who supported terroristnetworks during the previous three months,continuingatrend in which hundreds of terrorist suspects have been killed or captured since 2003 However,the UnitedStates continues to urge Saudi Arabia to take action against additional key terroristfinanciers and facilitators in the KingdomTheUSand Saudi Arabiancooperation on designations in the UN 1267 Committee has also been good The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authonty circulates to all financial institutions under itssupervision the names of suspected tenorists and terrorist organizations on the UNSCR 1267 Sanctions Committee's consolidated listSai^dlContrit^i^on to Stat^lilt^ In the kiddie East and Islamic Worid^incioding the kiddie East Peace Process^ by EliGroupsSaudi Arabia was one of the first countries to condemn the Septemt^rHattacks and provided key logistical support toUSforces in Afghanistan SaudiArabiahas been an important partner in the War onT^rror,particulariy since the onset of the al-Qaida-sponsored terror campaign inside the Kingdom in 2003 SaudiArabia also has strengthened Its border controls and security and, in particular, its border with Iraq These efforts have hampered the flow of terrorists and weaponsacross the borderThe United States and Saudi Arabia have worked closely to combat extremist groups and tendencies in Saudi Arabia The government continued its wide rangingre education and training program that requires all govemment sponsored religious leaders to attend courses designed to eliminate extremist ideology frommosques Those who fail to abide by government directives have been fired or reassigned Several religious leaders were fired or subjected to punitive action forfailure to abide by government instructions to avoid provocative speeches against non-Muslims and non-Sunni Muslims In previous years in some mosques, asecondpreacherwouldappearafterthemainpreacherduringtheFridayprayerandspeakprovocativelyagainstAmericans, Jews, or non orthodox Muslims Thispractice IS less prevalent now. due in large part to the government's efforts to combat extremism in the mosquesIn the cultural arena,official visits byanumber OfUS officials, including Ambassador-at-l^arge for International ReligiousFreedom John Hanford,^^^govemment's efforts to remove references in textbooks that promote hatred towards non Muslims and Muslims of different sects Senior Saudi officials haveacknowledged the need to combat extremism by addressing comprehensive education reform In November 2006. the King Abdul Aziz Center for National Dial^^held the Sixth National Dialogue Fon^m in Al-Javi^ called''Education: Reality and PromisesBThe Dialogue produceda'road map'for educationarevision of textbooks,curricula.and teaching methods to promote toleranceThe government also initiated the National Campaign to Counter Terrorism,whichincludes publications, lectures, and wori^shops intended to educate school age girts and boys about the evils of ten^onsm Additionally , The Mini^recently issuedanew regulation that allows only Ministryapproved summer camps to operatePolitical and Economic Reform In Saudi Arabia and Throo^houtthe islamic WoridSince 2005, Saudi Arabia has taken incremental steps toward political reform through holding municipal city council elections and allowing women to bothand compete for seats in chamber of commerce elections and the Saudi Engineer's Council The United States welcomed the municipal elections asto increase citizen participation in govemment and to increase govemment accountability However in the future the United States hopes to see the inclusion ofwomen in the municipal elections, further expansion of citizen participation in politics, and the development of independent politicalIn 2006, there was also greater involvement in govemment activities by the Majlis Al-Shura (the Consultative Council) and the178 municipalir^eased public and media discourse about human rights, the overall human rights environment remained poorThe United States sponsorsavariety of initiatives focused on increasing freedom and o^ortunity for Saudi citizens,including the Middle East Partnership Ini^^^^(MEPl),support to the Middle East Democracy Assistance Dialogue and the Broader Middle East and North Africa (BMENA) Civil Society Dialogue,andabroadvariety of public diplomacy educational, exchange and outreach programs of the State Department's Bureaus of Educational and Cultural Affairs and IntemationalInfonnation Programs Wth MEPl support, junior Achievement lntemational--a program to educate youth on the benefits of free enterprise, busi^^economics-will focus on openinganew chapter in Saudi Arabia this summer MEPl also is supporting the creation ofawomen's business hub in the kingdom toexpand the participation and variety of economic opportunities for womenHigher oil prices bolstered the Saudi economy in 2006,resulting inabudget surplus of roughly $71 billion In addition to reducing the national de^^^re investing much of the surplus revenue in ambitious social development and massive infrastructure projects The govemment also has supported investments todiversify the economy away from petroleum and the petroct^mical industry Saudi Arabia's accession to the WoridTrade Organization in December 2005strengthenedtheKingdom'sability to attract foreign investmentWays to Promote Greater Tolerance and RespectforCulturai and Religious Diversity in Saudi Ar^bi^^ndThroughoutthe islamic WoridIn November 2006,the Secretary of State designated Saudi Arabiaa"Country of Particular Concem'pursuant to the International Religious Freedom Act Th^an important element of our bilateral dialogue with the Saudi govemment The United States is working to promote religious and cultural diversity in Saudi Arahttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Safe I^^^s(7120 Report)^Pagel4of34and counter the Spread of extremist Ideology through high level engagement and through exchange programs aimed at reaching key population groups We alsosupport efforts to promote moderation and tolerance, such as King Abdullah's National Dialogue initiativeOnApril25,2005,followingthevisitofthen-CrownPnnceAbdullahtoCrawford Texas the United States and Saudi Arabia issuedajointde^aration noting that"future relations must rest onafoundation of broad cooperation We must work to expand dialogue,understanding,and interactions between our citizens'Thedeclaration noted that such cooperation would include programs designed to:^ Increase the number of young Saudi students traveling and studying in theUS.,^ Increase military exchange programs so that more Saudi officers visit t h e U S f o rmilitary training and education; and^ Increase the number of Amencans traveling to work and study in Saudi ArabiaIn 2005 Saudi Arabia initiatedascholarship program to increase the number of young Saudi men and women pursuing undergraduate and graduate studies in theUnitedStates By 2006,more than 15.000 Saudis were studying in the United States on govemment scholarshipsWays to Assist SaudiArabia in Reversing the impact of Financials l^orai^ Intellecttjal^ or Other St,^pport to Extremist Groi^p^ In Saodi ArableCountries^ and to Prevent this Support from Continuing in t t ^ FutureThe United States and Saudi Arabia wori^ closely togetherto combat terrorism in Saudi Arabia and abroad This includes collaboration on countering tefinancing The United States and Saudi Arabia have establisheda^ointTask Force onTerrorism Finance (JTPTP) that has strived to improve cooperation oncombatingterroristfinancing However.the Saudis still have not establishedaHigh Commission for Charities to oversee all charities in Saudi Arabia Although theSaudis have increased oversight and monitonng of domestic chanties the govemment does not subject the foreign activities of Saudi basedintemationto the same level of scrutiny Additionally, although the Saudis announced plans to establish the Commission for Relief and Charitable Works Abroad to overs^^activities of Saudi charities overseas, this body IS not yet functioningThe United States and Saudi Arabia have worked togetherto jointly designate entities to the UN 1267 Committee and the Saudis have submitted over 20 namesTocombat ten-orist financing,Saudi Arabia has instituted new anti-money laundering and counterterrorism finance laws and regulations,including removingboxes from mosques,restncting the amount of cash that can be carried into or out of the Kingdom,and esteblishingaPinancial Investigations Unit (FIU) in theMinistry of Interiorto investigate money-laundering cases However,the Customs authonties have not yet implemented the new regulations goveming themovement of cash across Saudi Arabia's border5.4.The Struggle of ideas in the Islamic WoridPublic diplomacy is essential toasuccesslul foreign policy and to Americans natiorialsecurity.The United States recognizes that the gl^^challenge of countering terronsm is, at its heart,acontest of Ideas and values.and that Amenca IS more secure when people around the worid share the samehopes and freedomsGoal^ for Winning the Struggle ofldeasThe State Department's public diplomacy wori^ is guided by three strategic imperativesPirst and foremosL it continues to o^erapositive vision ofhope andopportunityrootedintheenduringOS commitment to freedom It promotes the fundamental end universal rights of free speech and assembly,the freedom toworship, the rule of law, and rights for women and minorities It strives to isolate and marginalize violent extremists and undennine their efforts to exploit rrationalizetheiractsoftenor Finally,It fostersasense of common interests and common values between Americans and people around the woridTools to Accomplish Such GoalsThe United States advances these strategic objectives by vigorously engaging foreign publics to explain and advocate American policies. Reaching foreignaudienceswithcorepolicymessegesondemocracy,tolerence,endtheuniversalvaluesofliberty,^ustlce,and respect ere atthe center OfUS efforts toextremist metonc and disinfonnation coming from hostile groupsThe United States is promoting increased exchanges, which exemplify the transfonnative power of American global engagemenLThe significance of people-to^people exchanges has never been more clear or compelling The 9/11Commission Report recognizes the essential contribution exchanges make to nationalsecurity The National Intelligence Refonn Act of 2004 rea^rms the importance of America's commitment to exchangesThe United States is expanding educational opportunities as the path to hope and opportunity English language programs not only provide cn^cial skills but alsoopenawindow to information about the United States,Its people.and its values Americans must also better educate themselves about the worid,the President'sNational Strategic Languages Initiative will encourage more Amencan students to study critical languages such as Chinese and ArabicResponding to and quickly debunking misinfom^ation, conspiracy theories, and urban legends is crucial for success in the war of ideas The State Dep^^maintainsapublic'Identifying Misinformation" website.in English and Arabic, devoted to countering false stories that appear in extremist and^ e site focuses on disinformation likely to end up in the mainstream media Embassies have used information from this site to counter disinfonnation in extremistprint publications in Pakistan and other countnesOnearticle.'ATno of Disinfom^ers,"was the subject ofa1100-word frontpage article in aninfluential panArab newspaper alSharqal-Awsat 'Identifying Misinformation" is featured on the usinfostate.govwebsite,and is listed f^Google search for the tenn"misinformetion"At least 49 websites have direct links to itThe Intemet,radio, television,end video products remain powerful toolsfor bringing Amenca's foreign policy message to woridwideaudiencesThe StateDepartmentpn^ducesawidearrayofprintandelectronicmaterialsdescribingforforeignaudiences,intheirown languages, the need to counterthosewho havehttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1 /10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale l^^^s (7120 Report)Pagel5of34committed orwish to commit terrorist acts.as well as the achievements made in that stmggleThe State Department's premier web page to explamUScounterten^orism policy IS "Response toTerrorism."created more than seven years ago and featured onusinfostategovThe site IS listed third out of241 million sites inaGoogle search for the terms''terrorismUS"Atleast133 websites link directly t o ^In addition to featuring articles, texts, and transcripts from key policymakers this site provides valuable links to the Electronic Joumalsseriefor Combating Terrorism, the designated Foreign Terrorist Organization list and the State Department's Country Reports on Ten^rism "Response to Te^^^^located on the Internet at http://usinfo stategov/is/intemational^security/terrorism htmlSupportfor and understanding of the United States go handinhand with strengthening and empowering the voices most credible to speak out in favor of toleranceand rule of law to counterthe violent extremists'message of hate and terror One of publicdiplomacy's greatest assets is the American people Empowerment ofindividualsaridgroups from ell walks of life isakey aspect ofthe Department's publicdiplomacy effortsAs we actively prosecute the struggle of ideas,we need to recognize that this will requirealongtem^ effort spanning years and generations For that reason^placing increased emphasis on programs directed at younger audiences, including undergraduate and, in select cases, high school studentsTheUS Govemment's assistance programs, administered through USAID,the Middle East Partnership Initiative, the Millennium ChallengeUSentities,advanceUS interests in this area directly through programs to increase access to education,improve health care and empower people to build betterlives Civic engagement is an important component Assistance programs to strengthen and professionalize independent media and civic society contribute toopening the "marketplace of ideas,"as well as support development and reform across the boardThrough the $66 million In FY 2006 supplemental funds for civil society development, broadcasting, and exchange efforts related to Iran, we have dramincreased our ability to speak directly to the Iranian people end DiasporaThis supports efforts to clarifyUS policy objectives to t^^pressure on the Iranian regime to suspend its funding of extremist activities abroadbenchmarks for l^easuring Success and Linking Resources to AccomplishmentsIn 2004, State established the Public Diplomacy Evaluation Office (PDEO) Its mandate is to evaluate all major public diplomacy and exchange programsindividually as well es provide an overall strategic framewori^ for public diplomacy assessmentThe PDEO has researched other government public diplomacy evaluation and measurement tools and it is considered one ofthe most advanced in terms ofmeasuringoutcomesofpublicdiplomacy Organizations as diverse as the Peace Corps. Department of Defense the British Council, the World Bank, and nonprofits in Italy, Japan, and the Netheriands have all consulted with the PDEO on how to measure public diplomacy activitiesThe measures used by the PDEO ere based upon recognized social and behavioral science methodologies and include measuring changes in audience attitudes(knowledge, skills,perceptions,andunderstanding),behavior,and condition Examples include:^ Improved or increased understanding ofthe United States, its policies and values,^ Initiated or implemented "positive" change within an individual'sorganizetion-positive referring to changes that supportOS Ideals^ Institutional partnerships and linkages and on-going collaboration; and^ Changes in editorial content in major mediaParticipation in International institutions for the Promotion of democracy and Economic DiversificationThe United Stetes isaleading participant in many international organizations,such as the United Nations and NATO,that are importent to the struggle of ideas andtheWaronTerror We also playaleading role in other initiatives such as the Ponim for the Future and the Community of Democracieswhich stimulatecooperation with other nations to advance the agenda of freedom.For thefirsttime since its creation in 2000,the Community of Democracies, in response t o U Sreoomni^nd^tions,or^^t^dr^^ion8ld^^lo^o^s which broi^^ht together ^ov^rnm^r^t^l^ndnon^ov^rr^m^ntalor^^ni^^tithe Middle East, to discuss the particular challenges and solutions unique to their area We will continue to seek opportunities to build on the momentum coming outofthe April ministerial, particulariy iri support ofthe Forum forthe Future and the Broader Middle East and North Africa (BMENA) processesU.S. A^^l^tance Sufficient to Convince Allies and People in the islamic Worid that the United States is Committed to Winning This StruggleU S assistance programs are intended to improve economic conditions and opportunities in developing countnes around the worid thereby serving theUSnational interest inamore prosperous and secure intemational community Our assistance can have the additional impact of demonstrating our commitment to helppoorer countries or countries in special need,as we saw after the tsunami of 2004,and the Pakistan earthquake of 2005 There is,however,no set amount ofmoney or time that we could identify as being sufficient to win the struggle of ideas5.5. Oittreach through broadcast l^edla^^^^e^t^n^sprovrde^b^^e8n:^a^ast^n^8oa^of^^o^r^^^^^.broadcasting 8oard of Governor Initiatives: Outreach to Foreign ll^usiimAodiencesThe Broadcasting Board of Govemors (BBG) continues to build its capecity to broadcast to Muslim populations in the Middle East and other parts of the world Inthe past four years, the establishment of the Middle East Broadcasting Networks (MBN) illustrates the urgency and gravity of the broadcast priorities associated withthe nation's War onTerror Radio Sawa and Alhurratelevisiori's24/7Arabicbroedcests reach audiences in 22 countries in the Middle East es wellas throughouthttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale l^^^s(7120 Report)Pagel6of34EuropeIn 2006, the BBG made fiirther progress in implementing its broadcast strategy across the broad geographical and cultural landscape Of the Middle East andbeyond Adramatic increase in the Persian language television programming of the Voice of America has beenasingular accomplishment, providing four hours oforiginaltelevisionnewsendinformationeechdeytothepeopleoflranA12-hour stream of programming IS expected to be on line by April 2007 At the same time.Radio Free Europe/Radio l^iberty strengthened Its 24/7 Persian broadcasts via Radio Farda by adding 30 minutes of additionel daily news programming, aswell ascreetingamoresubstentive,interactive website that enhances our ability to communicate directly with the Iranian peopleThroughthecombinedskillsofbroadcastersatMBN,VOA,RFE/RL end Radio Free Asia, the BBG IS secunngapublic diplomacy strategy that mirrorsUSnational security priorities endfocuses on nations that may suffer from,or contnbute to.the scourge often-orismThe implementation of this strategy focuses onbuilding BBG's reach and impact within the Islamic worid, faciliteting citizen discourse; engaging the world in conversation about America, enhancedelivery-helping audiences understand the principles of democratic societies; and employing modern communication techniques. The rigorous use of research,more frequent program review end oversight, and more compelling broadcast formats that will resonate in competitive, but cntical, international markets remacn.icialtothisstrategy But underiying these techniques, the joumalistic product and integrity remain the seme BBG broadcasters provide accurate, obje^^^comprehensive news and informationAs BBG resources have shifted from arees ofthe worid where the local medie are increasingly free and robust to the Middle East and Southwest Asia,the BBG hascreatedanew broadcast entity,MBN,and refocused the broadcasts of others RFE/RL is nowamajorbroadcasterto Iran,Iraq and Afghanistan RFE/RL reachesaudiences in the Muslim countries of Uzbekistan, Kezakhsten, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Azerbaijan as well as the majority Muslim populations ofTatarstan,Bashkortostan,and the North Caucasus.VGA has similariy reduced itsbroadcasts to Europe, increasing its focus on Iran,Afghanistan,Indonesia,Pakistan, and other critical nationsDuring the past year, BBG's broadcasters hamessed their broad journelistic resources to fully report on issues such as the Isreeli^Hezboll^^provideaprogram perspective that is often lacking in media outlets abroad BBG con-espondents in the Unites States and around the worid contribute toavailable in 58 languages Live, simultaneous interpretation of Presidential speeches, such as the State of the Union, and of Congressional hearings enablesMuslim audiences to hear the President's message, as well as the Democratic responseArat^lcSroadcasting.Toeffectively communicate with the predominantly young audiences in the Middle East, the BBG createdanew concept in internationalbroadcasting RadioSawaa24/7networkofstationsspecificallydesignedtoreachthelargesegmentoftheArabicspeakingpopulationunder^^^Radio Sawa went on the air in March 2002,quickly attracting and sustainingeloyel audience throughout the Middle EasL as new transmission sites were addedthroughouttheregion In 2007,Radio Sawa continues to broadcast accurate,authontative.comprehensive,and timely news about the Middle East,theUnitedStates, and the world In addition to 325 newscasts per week, Radio Sawa offers discussion and infonnational programs such as the popular "Sawa Chat"interactive feature end the "Free ^one."aweekly review and discussion of democracy end freedom es they relate specificelly to the Middle East Feature programsencouregediscussionofkeysocielend political issues inamanner very different from indigenous Arab mediaRadio Sawa broadcasts on FM in Morocco (Rabat. Casablanca, Tangier, Meknes,Marrakesh,Agedir and Fes), Jordan (Amman and Ajlun), the PalestinianTerritories (Ramallah and Jenin). Kuwait (Kuwait City), Bahrain (Manama), Qatar (Doha), U A E (Abu Dhabi and Dubai), Iraq (Baghdad, Nasiriya.Besra, Mosul,Kiri^uk.Sulimaniya and Erbil).l^ebanon (Beirut. North l^ebanon. South Lebanon and Bekaa Valley), and Djiboutf Radio Sawa broadcasts on medium wave to EgypYemen, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan However Radio Sawa recently received permission from Sudan to expand Its reach in that country and broadcast Radio Sewaon FM transmitters throughout Sudan By broadcasting on FM, Radio Sewe increases the number of listeners who can receive objective news and informationabout Sudan, the Middle East, and the woridBuilding on the success of Radio Sawa,the BBG launched Alhun-aTelevision on February 14,2004,covenng 22 countries in the Middle East via the same sate^used by major indigenous Arabic channels In the three years Alhurra has been broadcasting 24/7, the channel has provided in-depth coverage of historic even^suchaselectionsthroughouttheMiddleEestincludinglraq,thePalestinianTerritories, Egypt,OAE,Kuwait,Bahrain,and Israel Alhun-a hasleader reporting on end enelyzing new democratic trends in the Middle EesLThrough objective and accurate reporting,Alhurre has been en exempleofefree pressto the region and has becomeatrusted source of news for Its estimated 20 million weekly viewers In 2006, Alhurra expanded Its live and breaking news coverageto provide viewers with the latest news and information as It IS happeningAlhurra also gives Its audience insights into life in America and the American system of govemmenL During theUS electoral campaign in 2004 and the midtermelections in 2006,Alhurra provided daily in-depth coverage of the candidates and the issues that impacted theOS elections Broad coverage of theUS electionsprovided an opportunity to showcase the political institutions of the United States Alhuna also dramatically increased its live news coverage of events andspeeches by President Bush, Secretary of State Rice, and members of Congress Additionally, Alhurra has reporters that cover the White House, Congress, StateDepartmentandthePentagon Alhun^a's current affairs programs also highlight theUS Inside Washington takes viewers behind the scenes of the poli^^in Washington with guests such as Supreme Court Justice AntoninScalia. former Secretary of State Alexander Haig, and Representatives Howard Bennan.lleanaRos-Lehtinen,Tom Lantos.and Peter Hoekstra The network also producedadocumentary series on American culture and values.and Amencans,which proved tobeepopuler program with audiences and the Arabic pressAlhurre Is also producing programs to provideeforum for discussion on sensitive issues such as human rights and the rights of women Current affairs programslike Alhurra's Equality continue to be unique in the regiori's media, due to the limitations imposed by the countries that finance regional television netwo^^^by Seudi journalist NadineAI-Bdair the program discusses the rights of women and tackles subjects such es young girls being forced into marriage, therightofwomen to dnve and the nghts of women in Islam There has been incredible feedback on this program and others, some praising the courageousness of thisprogram and others condemning Alhurra for discussing these topics In 2006, Alhurre also launched Eye on Democracy focusing on democratic efforts throughoutthe Middle East and human rights abuses in the regionThroughout its three-year history,Alhun-a has providedaforum for discussion of important topics byawidevanety of experts including the all-important Vhttp://www.stategov/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728htm1/10/2013Chapter5TerroristSafeI^^s(7l20 Report)^Pagel7of34moderation Alhuna's talk shows, roundtables, and documentaries have routinely tackled vital topics that are taboo on many Other statio^^the struggle for human rights.the position of women in Arab society,religious freedom,freedom of the press,and freedom of expressionRadio Sawa and AlhurraTelevision continue to grow in popularity and credibility and now r^achatotalunduplicated audience of 35 million adults15andold^according to intemational research firms such esACNielsen and Ipsos The surveys show thaL despite high levels of anti-Amencan sentiment throughout theregion, both Alhurre end Radio Sawa are regarded as credible sources of news end information by their audiencesIraq.Alhorralraq.aspecialtelevisionstreamcontainingmor^concentratednewsandinformationtoandaboutlraq,began broadcasting in April 2004 Througsatellite and terrestnal broadcasting in Iraq,Alhurra has gainedafoothold in one of the most competitiveTVmari^etplaces in the world.Alhurre's goal is to helpviewers make educated and informed decisions about political,social,and economic events affecting their lives Tothis end,dunng the historic elections in Iraq,Alhurra produced end broadcastthefirst televised electoral debate in Iraq's history, featunng six candidates representing the major politic^^debatebroughtaboutecandiddiscussion among the candidates and providedaforum for the viewers to be able to compare and contrast each of the parties'candidatesRPE/RL's Radio Free Iraq continues to provide the Iraqi people with breaking news and in-depth coverage of developments in Iraq and the Middle East RFIappeals toawide spectn^m of listeners in Iraq,covering the most significant political issues in the country through its extensive network of stnngers reportingthrough its Baghdad bureau During 2006, the editors in Prague continued to develop thematic programming focused on democracy-building, and an enhancedwebsite has shown strong growth topping more than 170,000 page views in December ADecember 2005 survey showed listening rates for RFI eteweekly level of216percenLRadio Free Iraq provided extensive coverage of President Bush's trip to the Middle East in November 2006,end eiredaspecial broadcast on President Bush's talksin Jordan with Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Kamal alMalikLThe program included reports from RFI con-espondents in Amman on the President's joint press conferencewith al-Maliki, with lengthy excerpts of statements by the two leeders, analysis end reections within IraqThroughout December.RFI devoted substanfialairtime to the report ofthe Iraq Study Group. Coverage focused on the report^s content, enal^^^local and intemational reactions to its findings RFI presented the positions of Iraqi national and regional leaders, end stetements by leeders in the United States.Britain,Israel,Jordan,Syria,and Egypt RFI correspondents interviewed political analysts,commentators and advisers to politicians in Baghdad,Damascus.TelAviv,Washington.Art^il and Kut. airingarange of views and responsesWeekly programs such as "Human Rights in Iraq" providedaforum for extensive coverage of the trial of Saddam Hussein,in addition to the daily coverage of thetrialwhenitwasinsession On November5,RFI broke into regular programming to bnngalive report with the verdicL followed byaspecialhalfhour program oflive reactions from five Iraqi cifies--Baghdad.Tikrit. Mosul,Amara.and Basra--and stetements from President Bush and Iraqi government officialsT^^was used the day of the executionArabic in Et^ope.lnAugust 2006,Alhun^e Europe waslaunched to bnng togetherthe best programs of Alhun^a and Alhuna-lraq to the Arabic-speekingin Europe Alhurra Europe can be seen on the Hotbird satellite system that reaches all of Europel^urdlah.Broadcastingfourhoursofdailyradioprogramming,VGA's Kurdish Service remainshighlypopular.Accordingtoe2006 survey c^^Research,VOA^s Kurdish Service scoreda31 percent audience share among the Kun^soflraqThe survey stated: "In facL no radio stetion ranks higher in terms ofreliability,"end edded:"VOAoccupiesaunique position emong Iraqi Kurds as It is the only major international broadcaster offering programs in the KurdishlanguageBVOA Kurdish focuses on the Iraqi scene throughanetwork of stringers,with special programs and call-in shows devoted to combating extremism insidethe country and the surrounding region Special coverage highlighted the debate among Kurds on the role of Islam in the regional and national constitutions of 1^^In interviews with VGA Kurdish, moderate Kurdish-speeking clerics tried to calm the passions raised by the Pope's comments on Islam The Iranian regime'snuclear ambitions and its support for extremist groups in Iraq and in the Middle East received particular coverage in the form of interviews and panel discussionsIran. Broedcasting to Iran remainsakey BBG priority Pursuant to increased funding,VGA Persian television to Iran essentially doubled its broadcast hours over2008 l ^ v ^ l ^ by ..iLin^ ^ 0 0 ^ , ^r^d^xp^r^d^dfoi^rfold by October ^ 0 0 ^ T h i ^ p r o ^ r ^ m m i n ^ h o s b ^ ^ r ^ ^ ^ t i r ^ i r ^ r ^ v ^ ^ ^VOA^scurrenttelevisionlineupincludesNewsTalkadlscussionprogramwithapanelofexpertswhoexaminetheday'sheadlines; News and Views.VGAPersian's fiagship program feeturirig live news coverage of the latest headlines from Iran and the worid; Roundtable,acallin and discussion program on p^^^end cun-ent affairs; and Late Edition,adaily nightly wrapup of the dey^s news, which is targeted toeyounger audience Programming on human rightgovemence,freedomofspeech the rights of women and ethnic minonties. the issue of nuclear energy vs nuclear weapon development, and news and analysisare constant features of our programmingThis year Persian television featured an impressive an-ay of prominent guests including Under Secretary of State Nicholas Bums: Pnncipal Deputy AssistantSecretary for Near Eastem Affairs Jemes Jeffrey; Nobel Peace Prize laureate ShirinEbadi: journalist Akbar Gandji. recently released from lail Hol^Elie Wiesel; and manyUS senetorsandrepresentetives VGA TV has also covered Senete end House heanngs on Ireri Iri the nearfuture, the Service will leuncheseries on 28 years after the Islamic Revolution in Iren end the impact it has had on that country and the regionOther program examples include an interviewwith Ted Koppel about his documentary,"Iran-the Most Dangerous Nation."which explored the generation gap inIren between aging clencs and the 70 percent of the populetion belowthe age of 30.en interviewwithfom^erClA Director ^amesWoolseyet the American Fo^^^^Policy Counoil conference,"Understanding the IranianThreat": coverage of testimony by General John Abizaid,Senior Advisorto the Secretary of State andCoordinatorfor Iraq David Settertield, and CIA Director Michael Hayden before the Senate Anned Services Committee; live broadcast, with simulta^into Persian,of President Bush's ^enuery11eddress to the nation about increasing the number oftroops in Iraq; commentaries from Iraqi government officialswelcoming President Bush's new strategy fortheir country,UN Secretary-General Ban KiMoon's statement that the UN backs any genuine efforts to improvesecurity for Iraqis and to stabilize the country, and commentaries from Capitol Hill on the President's new Iraq strategyhttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm. 1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale f^^^s (7120 Report)Pagel8of34VGA devotes significent effort to hard hitting topics on the role of religion in society, including Irenian regime's use or abuse of Islam to solidify ias well as tojustify the oppression ofwomen and limitfree speech.free association and freedom ofreligion These stones generetemessiveemeil response endother feedback from Iran,as well as from Persianspeaking populations in Kuwait, the UAE.Qatar, SaudiArabia.Iraq.Turkey,Syria,and Lebanonlri2006,Radio ^arda^ajoint service of RFE/Rl^ and VGA,continued to broedcest to lren24hoursedey,withegoel of providing Iran's predominantly youngpopulation news end information As Radio Farda has matured, and as funding has supported the addition of larger blocks of news and information, It has done soinitstraditionasa"surrogate"broadcaster presenting news about the country to which it broadcasts Current broadcasts include over eight hours of news andinformation programming daily,with popular Persian and western music drawing in the younger audience RadioParde finds direct sources of information fromwithin Iran in spite ofthe challenging environment for joumalismRadioFarde reaches significant audiences in Iran,in spite of Iran's consistent jamming Listening remained stable at 13.5percent-the highest weekly reach rateof any international broadcaster,end more than double that of BBC's Persian service Among its key target group,youth aged18-29Farda's weekly reach was287 percenL Utilizing new resources provided by theUS Congress, RedioFardehes augmented Its website to expand breadth of content-more stories to read,more images to view,and more opportunities to comment on news end iriformetiori December 2006 was the first full morith of operetions forthe revamped Fardasitewhichshowedamillion-page increase in usage over the previous monthThe Intemet will become increasingly important in the lives of Iranians seeking objective news and infonnation about Iran and the worid Radio Farda's^^bringsanew level of interactivity to RadioFarda This includes the "Most Popular and Most Emailed Stories" and "PardaClub"-for moderated discussions andblogs, providing immediate feedback from users to Radio Farda and other users Dunng the first 30 minutes that the site was live.about 50^ visitors viewedastoryoneprotest at the Amir Kabir UniversityFarda also provided thorough news coverage and analysis of the December15, 2006, Assembly of Experts and municipal elections held throughout Iran, widelyconsideredasetback for conservative forces aligned with President MahmoudAhmadinejad In addition to pre-election analysis and hour-byhour coverage of thevoting from correspondents in all provinces on Election Day, Radio Farda broadcast comments from both Iranian party leaders and intemational experts on Iran.RadioFarda provides Iranians with both breeking news and updates on social and political movements end unrest in their country,including such issues as thstrikes by Iranlenwori^ers Ferda aired comments from student leaders, who procleimed their solidarity with sfrikingwori^ers,es well es an exclusive eyeaccount from an Iranian trade union official of the surprise an-est of union leader Mansour OsanlouinTehran Radio Farda has provided ongoing coverage of ethn^unrest among the Azen and Kurdish population of IranIn its human nghts reporting,Radio Farda covered govemment attacks against women,including theTehran police dispersingegethenng to mari^ IntemationalWomen's Day by beating the assembled women On Decemberll,2006, within minutes of receivingword that students atTehran's Amir Kebir University wereheckling President Ahmadinejaddunngaspeech he was giving,Radio Farda reported the news to its listeners eround the countryPakistan. Since VGA introducedanewyouth-onented 12/7 radio station called ^ a d ^ o A a p ^ ^ ^ ^ n ^ a ^Yot^^^r^d^ in 2004,the stati^^growing number of listeners with its contemporary fonnat that includes news, infonnation, roundtable discussions, call-in shows, interviews, features, and musicResearch indicates thet^ed^oAepk^Ot^r^yaa'saudience has doubled since itsdebuLThe programs target Pakistani listeners between the ages of15and 39v^ich account for some 60 million of Pakisten's150 million residents-as well as millions more potential listeners in Indie,the Gulf, an^ed/oAepk^Ounyaa's reach,VGA introducedabilingual web page that offers live audio streaming of news and entertainment programmingStories of interest to VGA's Muslim audience areacentral pert of the Urdu Service's programming on radio.the Web,end television The Service provided detailedcoverage of the 2006USmid-term elections, withaparticularfocus on the perspectives of American Muslims,both Republican and Democratic VGA followed thecampaign end successful election of Congressman Keith Ellison (D MN), the first Muslim member of Congress The Urdu Service else covered the observat^Amencan Muslims of Raman.the month offesting,with dailytelevision features,including special peckages on iftar (breaking of the fast) at the White Hoon the perticipation of Karen Hughes, Under Secretary of Stete for Public Diplomacy, in Washington-area celebrations of Eid, the last day of Ramadan and the mostimportant holy day in Islam Afive-partinterfaith discussion underscored freedom of religion in the United StatesVOA^s Urdu Service entered the television market in November 2005 witha30-minute program,"Beyond the Headlines,"anews magazine featuring cun^entaffairs, discussions of issues behind the news, and feature stories illustrating shared values between Pakistanis and Americans The show airs every weekdayduring prime time on GEO.Pakistan's mostwidely watched satellite TV channel The program includes in-depth reports from VGA's Islemabad bureau on Pakistanipolitics and cultural issues; hard-hitting intenBiews with newsmakers, policy experts, diplomats and journalists, and stories examining the similarityPakistan and the United States, including Pakistani Americen life and its contribufion to both culturesB'Beyond the Headlines" newsmakerinterviewsgenerated widespread coverege in the Pakistani press According to GEO-TV's martlet research, "Beyond the Headlines" is the mostwidely watched program inPakistandunngthe7;30to8:00pm local time slotAfghanistan.Since 9/11,the BBG increased radio broadcasting to Afghanistan pursuantto the Radio Free Afghanistan ActTogether RFE/RL end VGA providea24-hour daily redio service in the Dan and Peshto languages thethasavest audience reech in Afghanistan In addition,VGA provideseonehourdaily program ofbranded TV news and culturelfeetures to state-owned Kebul TVAn InterMedia survey in September 2006 found RFE/RL^s Radio Free Afghanistan to heve the highestweekly reech of any communicetions medium inAfghanistan,including domestic radio and TV,et58 0percentAfghenisten IS the only country in the RFE/RL broadcast region v i ^ e r e e U S gbroadcaster is the dominant mediaWth its wide audience and high level of public tn^st. Radio Free Afghanistan isekey media outlet in Afghanistan forboth U.Sand Afghan officialduring the last year Radio Free Afghanistan covered President Bush"sMerch1visit to Afghanistan the surprise first stop his tour of South Asie^Afghanistan providedasimultaneous translation of his joint press conference with President Karzai after their meeting at the presidential pelece in Kabul Onhttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Sale I^^s(7120 Report)^Pagel9of3428,US Secretary Of State Rice's exclusive interview to Radio Free Afghanistan during her visit to Kabul assured the Afghan people that "the American people arecommitted to Afghanistan's future "The Service provides reports from Washington, Prague, and Kabul, exclusive interviews and roundtables and ongoing coverage of the efforts by Coalition Forcesto subdue the insurgency During June. Radio Free Afghanistari reporters iri the Kendeher end Helmand provinces went out with Afghen and Coalition Forces insouthem Afghenisten to report on the leunch of the second phase of Operation MounteinThrust,the largest countennsurgency operation in the country since theTeliban regime was toppled in 2001An example of Radio Free Afghanistan's thought provoking programming was Its comprehensive coverage of the apostasy case of Abdul Rahman, from his arrestin mid-March for his conversion to Chnstianity, to his release March 28 and request for asylum in Italy Correspondents in Kabul interviewed Ministry of Justice an^Afghen Supreme Court officials about the charges and the specific laws on apostasy RadioFreeAfghenistan aired statements from Afghan judicial officiels,reactions from ordinary Afghans, and from leaders eround the world including President Bush and Pope Benedict ^VlRadioFree Afghanistan's weekly live call-i^show March 30 was dedicated to the Rahman case, inviting listeners to exchange views on religious toleranceHumanrightsprogremmingprovidesinterviewswithseniorUS officials,and features Afghan citizens struggling with everyday issues, such asan int^year-old ^ohraAmiri,astudent who was criticized for attendingemusic academy for women sponsored by the United Nations and the European Union because ofprohibitions under Islamic lew for women to pley music On October 12,Radio Free Afghanistan for the first time broadcastacall-in show conducted in threelanguages: Dari,Peshto,and English.feeturing Mark l^aity,the senior spokesman for NATO/ISAF in Afghanistan,asaguest in the Kabul bureauVGA shares the24hour radio broedcest clock with RFE/RL,providing up to the minute news and infonnation to large Afghan audiences In addition,VGA has alsolaunched new television and radio programming to engage broed Afghan audiences and to focus on the Pashto speaking people in the Afghanistan-Pakistan borderregion In September,VGA launched'TV Ashna".aSaturdaythroughThursday60-minute TV news program (30 minutes each in Dan and Pashto)broadcastdirectly to viewers nationwide via satellite and its affiliate Redio and TV Afghenistan (RTA) This coverage now complements VGA's 12 hours of extensive r^^^programming to the country TV and Radio Ashna feature regular segments on American Muslims end Civil Rights, Islam in Amenca, and Islam and Democracythrough the segment's interviews and daily live call-in programsAshna provided extensive coverage of the first Muslim Member of Congress being sworn into office,using the Koran that belonged toThomas Jefferson Highlightsof Ashna"s information programming in 2006 included:^ An exclusive interview with General Richard Myers fonner General Chief of Staff, in which he said NATO and Coalition Forces will respond to any attackacross the border of Pekisten only when they are under attack:^ An interview with General David Richards. Commander of ISAF forces in Afghanistan in Kabul, who seid that NATO end Afghan forces are preparingthemselves for anticipated Spring attacks by the Taliban.and described efforts by NATO and the PRT (Provincial Reconstruction Team)to help the Afghenpeople rebuild their country,^ Aprofile of ^inedine^idane the world chempion soccer star forthe French national team,and his return to Algene for the first time in 20 years to be honoredby President Boutefiika; and^ Interviews w^th both the Imem and Chairman of the Mustafa Center in Virginia, and the president of the Afghan Academy in Virginia, regerding the freedom ofpracticing Islam in AmencaThe Pakistan/Afghanistan Sorder Region. In August,VGA introduced Radio D e e ^ (Light),anew bn^adcest stream aimed at the 40 million Pashto-speakingpeople living in the Afghanistan-Pakistan border region This three hour daily program offers local, regional, and intemational news as well as features on Is^^America,including interviews with prominent Muslim leaders VGA PashtoDeewa Radio featuresadaily segment called'"Islam in America,"and recently hadreports from Eid Celebrations by Muslims in America Additionally , Deewa Radio focuses on the Islamic worid through its daily call-in showsDeewa has interviewed dozens of Muslims of South Asian origin residing in Amence end has aired profiles of Islamic Centers and Mosques in its programming (i e ,the Islamic Centerin Washington DC,the MustafeMasjid in Virginia, and the Mustafa Mosque in NewYork).During the month of Ramadan,Deewa aired deilyinterviews with Muslims in America,from Washington.DCNew York the Carolines andTexesThese interviews tackle the topic of freedom of rel^^^the observance offasting, and attendance at area mosques for late night prayers and ceremoniesLast month Radio Deewa had four call in shows during Eid celebrations in America and its reporters reported live from area mosques on Eld Prayers The Servicealso regularly interviews American Pashtuns. both men and women of every walk of life, to talk about their expenences of practicing their religion and cultu^^UnitedStates Acall-in show on'"Islamic Mysticism"featuredaprominent mystic scholar,TahirBukhari,from the Northwest FrontierProvinceofPak^respondingtoquestionsposedbymorethanadozencallersfrom Pakistan,Afghanistan and the DiasporaThe Service regularly interviews the Pakistani Foreign Ministry spokesperson, Afghan officials and Pakistani federal and state cabinet ministertribal leaders on political and social issuesTuri^ey In recognition of media listening habits in Turi^ey,VOA'sTuri^ishSen^ice is moving to devote more of Its existing resources to TV end the InteVOATuri^ish expanded Its TV effilietioninTuri^ey by launching two weekly live broadcasts onTGRT News TV networi^.a24-hour nationwide news networi^wiweekly audience share of over 30 percent ofTuri^ey's estimated 25 million reguler viewers A15-minute wrap ofthe latest developments in news and current a^^^^VOATGRT Live is broadcestet9:00pmlocal time inTurkeyonTuesdays end Fndays In addition,VOATuri^ish Service producesaweekly30-minute news andmegezineprogramthatisairedonTGRTNewsnetwork9:30pm local time on Sundays Managers of TGRT News TV are pleased with this cooperationand haveindicated that they would like to increase the VGATGRT Live broadcasts to five days perweekVOATurkish radio broadcasts include two news shows (MonPri) on NTVFM,Turi^ey's largest FM news networi^ Discussions are unden^ay^thanotherTuri^ishnetwori^.TGRT-FM,to cen^ the 30minute evening radio show VGA has also been worthing to ettract more users to the VOATuri^ish website.The everege numberof monthly visitors to the VGA Turkish site has tripled this year to almost 65,000/monthVGATurkish is also one of the first VGA languages to offer text versions ofhttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htm1 /10/2013Chapter5Terrorist Safe I ^ ^ s ( 7 l 2 0 Report)^Page20of34top news Stones for use on web-enabled handheld devices such as cell phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) This service was launched in June 2006VOATurkishServicesummarizedtheUS State Department's 2006 Annual Report on International Religious Freedom and reported on the reactions fromTurkishofficials and experts In an exclusive interview to VGA in July 2006, Turi^ish Foreign MinisterAbdullah Gui responded to questions about issues of religioustolerance inTurkey and shared his views on the so-called'"clash of civilizetions"The Service aired original radio and TV reports on howUS Muslimthe month of Ramadan and other Muslim holidays last year Inaseries of reports end interviews during Pope Benedict's highly sensationalized visit t o T u ^ ^November 2006,Turi^ish Service focused on issues related to "the current lack of dialogue l^tween Christianity and lslam"Thoseinterview^^Duff, member of British Periiament and Joostl..agendijk, Dutch member of the European Pariiament and co-chairman of the EU-Turkey Joint ParliamenteryCommitteeindonesia.VOA expanded its reach to Indonesia's more than 200 million Muslims in 2006 by launching six news and information programs for Indonesia's top threeTV networks VGA also peppered theTV market withadozen or more special series on subjects ranging from illegal am-is sales by Indonesians to the di^^^oflslaminAmericaandhowAmericanscelebratethefastingmonthofRamaden VGA is now seen on five national TV networi^s and 16 regional TV stations In late2006,VOA conductedefive-week promotional campaign on IndonesianTV The one-minute "VGA World News Quiz" spots aired several timesaday on the topfour national stations and attracted over 450,000 text end email quiz entries Additionally,more than 200 radio stations now canzone or more of VGA's programofferings.including the youth-oriented "VGA Direct Connection" and ""VGA Headline News"This year also saw greater VGA outreach to Indonesian youth Threetimesadaythepopularyouthstation.Prambors airs "VGA Minute'",arapidfire segment of breaking news and informafion of interest to youth Asaresult of th^^growthinTVendradio,79millionlndonesiansnowtuneintoVOAregularly,making VGA the number one international broadcaster in IndonesiaWith more end more Indonesians lumping into digital communications,VOA has begun providingarange of information services includingadynamiweekly electronic newsletter and daily email news bulletins direct to cell phonesFinally,VGA's presence on the ground inside Indonesia solidified and grew in 2006,with its Jakarta news bureau becomingavaluable resource for coordVGA's local TV end redio news coverege end for developing new programs, especially for televisionU^t^ki^tan and Central Asla.VOA Uzbek reaches Muslim audiences in Uzbekistan,the most populous Muslim country in Central Asia,withatotalpopu^27milllon VGA broedcests ere cerried on short wave,medium wevefromTejikistan,end two FM frequencies in Osh and Jalalabad,Kyrgyzstan Both reachekeyereaofUzbekistan,the Ferghane Valley.ahotbed of Islamic fundementelism VGA's daily 30-minute broadcasts feature high profile interviews with venousUSandintemahonalsourcesdiscussingcriticalissues,suchastheWaronTerrorandthefutureofUSrelations with Uzbekistan Interviews w^^^CongressandkeypolicymakersbringUS policy and debate alive for listeners Pegged to the State Department's annual report on religious freedom,VGA Uzbekaired two series on Islam in Central Asia and women's rights When Uzbek-speaking Muslims living in the United States observed their religioUzbekcoveredtheirstoriesasexamplesoftoleranceintheAmericanway oflife On television,VGA continues to produceaweekly 30-minute feature magazinecalled ^xp^or^r^gArr^nce,which is being placed onaTV satellite network reaching Uzbek-speakers inAfghanistan and the rest ofstations in the Uzbek-speaking area of Osh, home to Uzbek and Kyrgyz MuslimsR^E^Ri.."s programming to UzbekistenTuri^menistan,Tajikistan,Kyrgyzstan and Kezekhstan continued despite various fomisofharassment and even repressionagainst its con-espondents and editors In Turi^menistan, an RFE/RL con-espondent died while in prison The recent death of President SaparmuratNlyazov ofTuri^menisten may provide an opportunity for RFE/RL to register its in-country correspondents, and eventually open its first bureau in the country if there isapolitical realignment inTurkmenistan In Uzbekistan,RFE/RUs bureau remains closed by Uzbek govemment orderThe service continues to prcoverage and democracy promotion under harsh conditions reminiscent ofthe Soviet era In Kyrgyzstan,RFE/RL has been able to work with Kyrgyz NationalTelevision (KTR) to produce and air local television news programming.A^ert^ai^an. According toeMarch 2006 InterMedia national survey in Azert^aijan,VGA Azert^aijani had emerged as the leading intemational broadcasterinAzert;^eijen with an audience share of 34 percent In addition toTV and radio offerings,VGA Azemaijani maintains two web sites,one in Farsi to reachAzeri-speakingminority in lran(estimatedat15million) Azerbaijani Foreign Minister ElmarMammadyarovwas interviewed exclusively for 1 ^Azeri:^aijani Service in September 2006. Among other issues,he commented on "tensions between Muslims end followers of otherfeiths throughout the world"lnNovember 2006.when an erticle published in an Azerbaijani newspaper was seen as denigrating Islam.leading Muslim clerics in neighboring Irenissuedereligi^^order calling for the killing of Its author VGA's Azert;^aijani Service interviewed several religious experts as well as men and women on the stand Iran to get their reactionsThis issue,and theUSState Department's Annual Report on ReligiousFreedom.were discussed in two separate live radio call-inshows produced by VGA's Azerbaijani ServiceRPE/RUs Azerbaijan service drewa76percent audience on radio only in 2006 maintaining its status as ^ e lead intemational radio broadcaster in the countryRFE/RL lived through the same setbacks in local delivery of programming as VGA during the past year Programming remainsamix of newscasts and democracyprogramming on political issues and civil society such as: human nghts media rights, minorities, judicial nghts religion and elections S^^pensions,publicwelfare,unemployment and drugs are increasinglyacomponent of the programming The service,worthing in concert with RFE/RL"s ArmenianService,provided comprehensive coverage of intensified negotiations overasettlement to the longstanding dispute over Nagomo-Karabakh including onthescenecoverage of summits in Rambouillet, France in Febmary, and Bn^ssels, Belgium in NovemberAfrica. VGA reachesalarge percentage of the almost 250 million Muslims in Sub-Saharan Afnca One in every five Muslims in the worid lives in Afi^ce, end onethirdofSubSeharenAfilca'spopulationisMuslim VGA Hausereaches51 percent of the Heusa-speaking Muslim populafion in Nigeria (ebout20 million).ebout 65 percent of the Muslim population in NigerVOA"sbroedcastsserveanimportantroleineasingtensionsandpresentingthefactsaboutlocel,intemational,andUSbased news stories Forexemple,^Danish cartoons depicting Muhemmed generated protests throughout the Muslim worid,including meny countries in Africa,VOA was able to provide neededperspectivetothestory The Africa Division covered this major story from every angle, while giving special attention to the African reaction In Nigerioity of Maiduguri was the scene of rioting Muslims attacked Chnshansand burned churches and shops owned by Chrisfians.The services contacted Mus^http://www.state.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter5TerroristSaleI^^^^s(7120 Report)^Page21of34Christian end civic leaders as well as politicians, journalists and ordinary people in Africa, in the United States and in Other parts Of the woricould evaluate the situation fairlyl^orthern Nigeria.AVGA Africa Division program targeting Hausa speaking Muslims in northem Nigeria.^^Political Crossfire" (Tsaka Mai ^ y a ) h a ^by ordinary listeners end many Muslim political leaders In this lively program with listener perticipation, politicians representing different poin^hottestpoliticalissuesoftheday Inaceremony in late June of 2006, many citizens, leading media outlets leaders of several political parties.and tVice-President participated inaceremonywhereanational Nigerian NGO with25million members,Friends of Nigena,presented an award to ""Political Cthe first award of its kind The leader of Friends of Nigeria called VGA Hausa "'a watchdog of democracy in Nigeria "Amharic. On December 28, 2006. the Horn of Africa Service added en additional half-hour morning radio news program in Amharic to cover the crisis in thepredominantly Muslim country of Somalie The program, whose centerpiece is an integrated newscast with con-espondent reports and actualities, IS broedcest onshortweveinthetargetareaMondaythroughFriday The program is heard in the region at 6:00em local t^me.witherepeet at 7:00em local t i m e ^ e newprogram supplements the regular evening programs in AmhericAfenOromo and Tigrigna,v^ich also give extensive coverage to Somalia-related news VGAAmharicattracts an audience of 18percent of the edult population of Ethiopia onaweekly basisNewVOASomeliBroedcesLVOAisscheduledtobeginanewhalfhour.sevendayaweekSomalibroadcastonMonday,February12The new program will beheard at 7:00 PM local time and again at 8:00 PM on shortwave, medium wave, and on FM through local effiliates The program will follow fast changing newsdevelopments in Somalia and the sub-region; it will also include interviews with Horn newsmakers,US policymakers and experts.interviews with the SomeDiaspora, analysis and culturel features and music There-leunched VGA Someli-lenguageprogremming to the Horn of Africa will aim to reach millions of Somalispeakers in predominantly Muslim Somalia,Djibouti and in the greater Horn of Africa and will target listeners, ages 17to 358an^iadesh.Bangladesh,withapopulationofover140million.has one of the largest Muslim populations in the worid VGA BanglaTV^Radio produced featuresregardingMuslimyouth.lslamicCenters.EidfestivalsandRamadan Interviews were aired with Nobel Peace Prize Winner Dr Muhammad Yunus, AssistantSecretary of State for SouthAsia Richard Boucher.Congressman Joseph Crowley (D) from New YorkUSAmbassadorin Bangladesh Patricia Butenis,Bangladesh Foreign Minister Morshed Khan,Home Minister LutfuzzamanBabar,and Bangladesh Ambassador in Washington ShamsherMChoudhury.India. With Muslims numbering over 145 million, India has the second largest Muslim population, after Indonesia VGA Hindi TV and radio programmi^^them Whether it isadiscussion about the Iraq war.the situation in Afghanistan.the nuclear ambitions of Iran,the recent India-Pakistan peace initiasituetion in Kashmir, or the Bombay Blatsof7/1l,the Hindi Service covers issues of interest to the Muslim world In 2006,VGA Hindi offered exclusiveTViriterviewswithUS Undersecretary of SteteR Nicholas Bums,Assistant Secretery of State for South and Central Asian Affairs RicherdBoucher.dozenssenators and representatives, and Muslim leaders, scholers, and experts regarding India's relations with Iran. Pakistan, and the United StatesBosnia and Herzegovina. VGA broadcasts to Bosnia and Herzegovina include progremming targeted to the 49 percent of the populetion that are BosnianMuslims Bosnian Service hese15-minute daily live radio show;ahalfhour deily live television show (news end current affairs)-e4-minute delfeed; andeveriety of short programs aired by the best rated Bosnian television station,BHT1 Programs are also aired by15television and 15radio affiliatestations throughout Bosnia, and are available via satelliteThe Service has been at the forefront of promoting reconciliation between the three ethnic groups in Bosnia, still widely divided, even twelve years after the signi^^of the Dayton AgreemenL which ended the war VGA's news and cun-ent affairs programs ere tailored to address concems of the Muslim population in Bosnia,providing exclusive interviews with religious leaders in Bosnia Interviews such as those with the Grand Mufti of Bosnie Mustafa Ceric; Catholic Cardinal VinkoPuljic: Orthodox Metropolitan Nikolai Dabrobosanski; and Bosnian Jewish Community leader ^ecobFinci were aimed toward promoting inter-religi^^end heeling the wounds of warThe Service continues to address the problem of tenorism,beginning with the allegetionsofasenousthreet posed by foreign Islamic militents in BosniBosnian warwas over Interviews with llanBerman of the American Foreign Policy Council; Juan karate.Deputy Assistant to the President and Deputy N^^^^Security Advisorfor Combating Terrorism; Bosnian Americans BejremefMulic and SenedAgic-end Lorenzo Vidino with the Investigative Project have f o ^ ^the problem of ten-orism in Europe Recently Grand Mufti Cericgeve en exclusive interview to VGA Bosnian on his ini^ativeforenewlslamlcD^would condemn Wahabism and its violent infiuence on Bosnian Muslim CommunityChina. Radio Free Asia provides service to Muslim audiences through its Uigher language service launched in December1998 It is the only international rservice providing impartial news and infonnation to the Uighur Muslim population in Westem China in the Uigher language The Xinjiang Uigher AutonomousRegion (^UAR) comprises roughly one-sixth of China's territory and an esfimatedlOmillionUigher speakers Like Tibetans,theTuri^icUighers have faced extrepression from the Chinese govemment since the People's Republic took control of their home temtory in recent years. Beijing has stepped up their control overUighers, using the War onTerrortojustify harsh crackdownson religious practice and political and social dissentConsistentwithRFA'smandate the Uigher service acts asasubstitute for indigenous media reporting on local events in the region The service broadcasti^^hours daily seven daysaweek,breaks many stones that go unreported by China's staterun media or foreign news organizetions including programs on SinoCentrel Asia, Sino-Russia,Sino-America relationship, democratic development in Central Asia, Uigher history, culture, literature, language, arts, humcorruption in the communist leedership system, the environment, AIDS and other heelth issues, as well es Intemet control in ChineRFAprovideseforumforavariety of opinions and voices from within the ^UAR.Progremming includes; breeking news,analysis,in-depth reporting,interviews,commentery.ehotline callin show,weekly news review,end feature storiesAlistener call-in hotline eirs five days perweek,ellowingcalle^^current events in the regionRFA'sUigher service Web site,launched in September 2004.provides continuously updeted news in all three v^ifing systems usedto conveytheU^Arabic, Latin, and Cyrillic RFA's site is the only non-Chinese Uigher news Web site and the only Unicode Uigher news Web site The site streams the daily RFAhttp://wwwstate.gOv/j/ct/ris/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter 5 ~ Terrorist Safe H ^ n s (7120 Report)Page 22 of 34broadcast in UIgher and offers ongoing coverage of events in the ^UAR in text. Image and videoThe archived audio filescan be retrieved onaspecial page ordovvnioaded via podcast RSS feeds are also available.making it possible forpeople to automatically update their news readers or Web pagescontentRFA continues to be confronted with unrelenting jamming of broadcasts and blocking of Its Web site Research conducted between June 2005 and August 2006shows that feer is the main tool used to prevent Uigher people from eccessing RFA,whether on airor online RFA's confronts Chinese censorship by broadcastingon multiple short-wave frequencies and by regulariy e-meiling instructions on accessing the banned www.rfa.org through proxy Web servers Despite Ch^censorship end the dengers involved,research indicates that Uigher listeners and Web users consider RFAalifelineinahostilemedieenvironment-astationoffering unique content worth taking risks to accessTranamission.SinceSeptemberll,2001,the BBG has transformed Its transmission capabilities,continuing its move fromashortwave environment to one thatuses AM, FM, satellite, and Intemet capabilities to reach Its audience By leistering transmission capabilities to the Muslim world, BBG has impr^to deliver news and information cleariy. reliebly, and efrectively New transmission capabilities have been edded, and assets reallocated from regions of lessgeopoliticel importance and from technologies of declining effectivenessThe BBG has worked to ensure that we deliver programming to in the media that ere most effective in reaching local populations Recent transmissionenhancements include: the delivery of Persian television broadcasts to Iran through two satellites: transmission of Alhurra Europe onanew satellite cha^^viewable throughout Europe,the launch of two additional AlhunaTV transmitters in Iraq (Mosul and AlHilleh) bnnging to four the total number of BBG-funded1^transmitters in that country,the construction ofanew medium wave antenna inTejikistan that IS increasing the strength of VGA's AapkiDunyaa radio programs toPakistan In eddition.anumber of new FM transmitters became operational in 2006 Subsequent to en agreement with Sudan,we hope to establish FM radiotransmitting stations in Khertoum end up tollotherlocetions in SudenThe BBG is currently supporting the construction of three high power medium wave radio transmitters that should come on the air in the next year: one for Pashtunprogramming in Afghanistan, one for Radio Farda programs to Iran, and one forAepkiDunyaa programs to Pakistan VGA's launch of www.voamobiie.comprovides an innovative service that ofrers news content onamobile phone or Intemetenabled handheld device in ten languages including English.PersiansTuri^ish, end IndonesianUS intemational broadcasfing must meet and serveUS national security priorities.and must also meet the needs and technological cepabilifies of thand regions to which we broadcastPresenting the U.S. Point o f ^ e ^ t h r o o g h i n d i g e n o o s broadcast H^edlaAt the Department of State, the Bureau of Public Affairs, Office of Broadcast Services uses television end video products as strategic tools for bringing America'sforeign policy message to Middle East and worldwide audiences Astete-of-the-ert digital broadcast television facility enables the Department to deliver mesinstantly, using the seme technology as professional broadcast television networks Public Afi^airs facilitates live and taped interviews with the Secretary of Stateand other Stete Department pnncipals to all the major Arab networks such es Middle East Broedcesting Corporation (MBC), AlArabiya Allraqiya. Abu Dhabi T^^DubeiTelevision.Arab Radio andTelevisionNetvi^ri^ (ART).AlHune, Kuwait TV.Egyptian TV (ETV),end l..ebenese Broadcasting Coq;^oratiinvestment in people and technology was developed to give seniorUS govemment officials an opportunity to engege and inform the widest audiences possibleebout our foreign policy and public diplomecy objectivesFurthermoretospecificallyenhancethecapacityoftheUS Embassy in Iraq,the Department of State recently opened atelevision studio inside theUS EmbassyInBeghded This fiilly fi.inctioning studio ellows top US officials to conduct live interviews via satellite with national and internrelated to the current situation and future of Iraq as well as Amenca's role in the greater Middle EastThe Department of State Near East Asia Public Affairs and Public Diplomacy Directorate's Arab/Regional Media OutreechProgrem has achieved tremendoussuccess in directly engeging Middle East medie end broedcest servlces Sirice Its creation. It has recorded en ever-iricreesirig numbregional media outlets-during 2006,820 interviev^switni200 Arab and regional journaiists^m^di^ot.itletsoooun^ed.with^r^cord4e^^Networks aired many of the interviews repeatedly and the broadcasts ^oro often picked up by oth^rooti^t^orwir^se^ioesThis capacity was further enhanced by the creation of ^eg^or^a/F^ub/^cD^p^oma^y^^Ps in London. Brussels and Dubai, key media mark^spokesmen is to advocateUS policies on regional media,especially televisionARapid Response Unit (RRU) was created within the Bureau of Public Affairs to monitor and translate major worid media in reel-time,produce an eariy momingdailyreportonstonesdrivingnewsaroundtheworid,andtocraftlanguagetoexplaintheUSposition on these issues It is distributed daily woridwide,toU.Scabinetandsub-cabinetofficials.US ambassadors,public affairs officers,regional combatant commanders,and others across theUS GovemmentThe Oepartment of State directly engages foreign audiences on the Internet through the DigitelOutreechTeam The Teem directly engages in discussions of poli^^issues and related developments on websites, pnmerily in the Arabic lenguege Openly representing the Depertment, but using informellenguage, the Team seekstoensurethattheUS perspective IS heerd in cyberspace,providingecounterpoint to extremist ideological arguments and misinformation Other interagency publicdiplomecy efforts targeted at countering extremist use of the internet are coordinated through the interagency Public Diplomacy Wori^ing Group, chaired by theBureeu of International Information ProgramsIn the ebsenceofaUSembessy,the Bureau of Intemetionellnformetion Programs menegesaPersianlenguage website directing policy and genereliri^rmationinto Iran.The website supports active engegement via web chets, web casts and listservs to connectUS policymakers end subject-matter expertsandl^^^citizenshttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter 5-Terrorist Safe l^sns (7120 Report)Page 23 of 34Another tool used to enhance communications notjust within frie Middle East, but wth the entire wortd, is the use of "Echo Chamber" Messages. These messageshave given U.S. embessadors and other U S Government officiels clear, common-sense guidance that enables them to better advocate U S policy on major newsstories and policy issues Additionally, these messages are provided to the Voice of Amenca Policy Office for use in crafting editorials reflecting the views of theU.S. Government.The Strategic Speakers Initiative (SSI)identifies, recruits, and programs prominent U S experts to engage foreign opinion leaders on key sfrategic themes such asdemocracy/rule of law, ten-onsm/seojrity, energy/environment and trade/development. Such speakers can be deployed rapidly to focus IIP resources where theneed is greatest to address the most cnjcial U S. policy priorities. Strategic Speaker participants are often part of a bigger public diplomacy package that includeswebchats. DVCs and other outreach. This program represents collaboration throughout the State DepertmentMajor Themes of Biased or False Media Coverage ofthe United States in foreign countries and the actions taken to address this type of media coverage.The Depertment of State is taking a leading role to counter misinformation and falsehoods about the United Stetes and its policies or intenfions For example, recentfelse themes about the United States in foreign medie included that the United States has devised an "American Koran," end it is pressing Muslims to adopt it, andthat depleted uranium, which the United States uses in Its anti-tank emmunifion. has caused a massive upsurge in cancers and birth defects Actions theDepartment of State has taken to address these false allegations include:• Launching a Department of State webpage entitled "Identifying Misinformation," appearing in English and Arabic, provides frutfrful information and analysis tothe public to debunk these false allegations (English-language website uri http Z/usmfo state,gov/media/misinformation html)•Instructing Public Affairs Officers at our Embassies around the worid to use this information on the website to counter false stories in the local media.•Creating the position of C ounter-M i s i nfo nn ation Officer in the Bureau of Intemational Information Programs (UP) to respond to Embassy requests regardingfalse stories about the United StatesPotential incentives for and costs associated with encouraging United States broadcasters to dub or subtitle into Arabic and other relevant languagestheir news and public affairs programs broadcast in the Muslim worid in order to present those programs to a much broader Muslim audience than iscurrently reached.Ttie single greatest incenfive for U S broadcesters to dub or subfitle their news and public affairs programs would be evidence that there is adequate demand forthe progremming among the targeted foreign publics The Office of the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs is working with the Bureeu of PublicAffeirs and other elements within the Department to explore avenues to demonstrate that a potentially profitable market exists for this programming. These officeswill continue to do such work, and if data emerges that indicates that this translation makes sense from a business standpoint, will present the data to broadcastersin an effort to encourage this activity.Any recommendations the President may have for additional funding and legislation necessary to achieve the objectives of the strategy?The President's budget and legislative requests for FY-2008, and supplemental request for FY-2007, include a number of authorities that would aid the strategicobjectives of U S. international broadcasting The pending supplemental contains a request for $10 million for the Middle East Broadcasting Networks As part of theAdminisfration's strategy to counter violent extremism, Alhun-a television would launch e signature three-hour daily program to provide eddifional information aboutAmericen policies, people, institutions, and perspectives to its audiences across 22 countries in the Middle East The three-hour daily program capitalizes onAl hurra's unique perspective in a growing meriouti. Since 2003, USAID has supported Djibouti's education refomi program, to (a) increase access through school rehabilitafion,renovating/building water and sanitation facilities, and the provision of textbooks, equipment and kits; (b) improve quality through teecher treining,development of teechers' and school pnncipals' guides, provision of English Language teaching and teacher training for secondary and university levels, andconstruction end equipment of pedagogic resources centers, es well as improving supervision: and (c) improve community participation and increase giris'education through the provision of scholarships to 1,000 girls and non-formal education programs for out-of-school youth especially giris USAID collaborateswith the U S Embassy and the Combined Joint Task Force/ Horn of Afnca•USAID/Nigeria began support to the educetion sector in 1999 Thefirstthree-year program focused on increasing teachers' instructional skills in Englishliteracy end numeracy; used interactive radio instruction; increased community/PTA involvement in schools" management: increased child-focused classroominstmctional methods; and increased local and state govemment skills in school-based data collection and use (this espect evolved into the current GONNational EMIS model) Some 25 percent of participating schools were Islamiyyah, the balance were public The cun-ent program integrates health andeducation activities, focusing on increasing teachers' instnjctional skills in English literacy and numeracy; uses interactive radio instruction: increasescommunity/PTA involvement in schools' management; and deals with school health and nutntion issues.In Europe and Eurasia the dissolution of the Soviet Union, followed by creation of new independent countries in place of the former Soviet republics, and thedrastic deterioration of the economic situation dunng the 1990s, forced many of the new govemments to drastically reduce the country's share of the GrossDomestic Product (GDP) allocated for the education sector. The economic downturn and the challenges of restructunng the economy and the education sectorhave been particularly severe in Tajikistan, which suffered from a five-year civil war (1992-97),In 2003, to support the efforts of the Central Asian countries to reform the education sectors, USAID has implemented a regional education project in Tejikisten,Kyrgyzsten, Uzbekisten, and Turkmenistan. Although regional in implementation, the project allows for and takes into account the specific needs of eech countryand aims to utilize windows of opportunity as they arise The Basic Education Strengthening Program (PEAKS) focuses on five major aspects of the educationsystem: (1) in-service teacher training; (2) classroom-level learning materials and textbook development; (3) parent and community involvement in educationdecision making; (4) management and technical cepecity et all levels of the educafion system; and (5) rehabilitation of school infrastructure The program isimplemented in close collaboration with the respective Ministries of Education, Ministry of Finance, teecher training institutes and other pedagogical and researchinstitutions. USAID also facilitates donor-host country dialogue and to the extent possible collaborates with other donors to ensure complementary design anddelivery of educafion activities.USAID/E&E EDUCATION PROGRAM IMPACT IN FOUR MUSLIM MAJORITY CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES (2002 - 2006)TYPE OFMAJOR PROGRAMPROGRAMCOMPONENTSREGIONAL IMPACT(approximate numbers)Increase Access to• School and classroom• Rehabilitated 113 schoolsEducationconstruction and rehabilitation (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)Opportunities* School finance• Piloted new school financemechanism based on per capita fundingformula to improve efficiency. Resultsinclude more efficient student/teacherratios in pilot areas (Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)Increase the Quality• Teacher training• 8,142 primary and secondary schoolteachers trained in interactive, student-of Educationcentered methods with mentonng andother follow-up support (Kyrgyzsten,Tajikistan, Uzbekisten, Turkmenistan)• Community and parental• 174 school community committeesinvolvementstrengthened to support school qualityimprovements (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikisten,Uzbekistan,)• Model school program• 300 "Model Schools'" model besthttp://www.state.gOv/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82728.htm1/10/2013Chapter 5 - Terrorist Safe Wmens (7120 Report)Page 30 of 34practices in the use of new teachingmethods, management practices andcommunity involvement, (Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan. Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan)Kyrgyzstan. Atter the Tulip Revolution, the country continues to hang in a tenuous balance. Strengthening the ability of the education sector to deliver qualityeducetion relevant to the needs of mari^et-based democrecy will fecilitate the democratic transition end economic performance and competitiveness. USAIDprovides teacher training and resource development for 11 pilot schools, which in tum will serve as teacher training centers for 84 cluster schools. The professionalDevelopment Schools (PDS) heve been recognized by the Govemment of Kyrgyzstan as the alternative teecher training providers, a significant accomplishment ina country with a highly centralized educational system that does not readily look to alternative service providers The Govemment of Kyrgyzstan also pays a salaryfor a PDS coordinator From the inception of the project. 90.268 students benefited from this program and 12,062 teachers received training In addition, USAIDfunds the Kyrgyz National Scholarship Test, which helps to fight corruption by enabling high school graduates to receive merit-based scholarships for highereducation.Tajikistan. Keeping momentum towards democratic reform in Tajikistan is critical, and a strong education system is an important tool to support that goal. While thebasic education project inifially focused on primary grades, deemed to be in the most urgent need of support, in 2005. additional resources allowed the project toexpand the spectrum of intervenfions to cover grades 5-11 and introduce the Reading, Writing, and Critical Thinking Program From the inception of the project,53,105 students benefited from this progrem and 481 teachers received training.In addition to the regionally implemented PEAKS project, USAID is also supporting a basic education project through the Age Khen Foundation (AKF) This projectworits in remote, mountainous areas where teachers seldom have access to professional development activities. As a result of teacher training improvements,teechers report increased attendance, retum to school of students who stopped attending, and new motivation to study among the students. From its inception, theUSAID-AKF project has benefited 5,000 students and trained 1,057 teachersUzbekistan. Although USAID was forced to halt project activities in 2006 due to the deteriorating political situation, the overall project achievements to date may benoted here Since its inception, the basic education project has benefited 102,412 students and trained 676 teachers, The success of the project is also evidencedby the feet thet meny of the Uzbek trainers continue to support the regional project activities in Kyrgyzsten and Tejikisten.Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan has taken the disturtDing step of essentially eliminating upper secondary education by reducing the length of study to nine yearsinstead of the standard ten years (under the Soviet system). In addition, the shift to the almost total relience on the late President Niyazov's books (Rukhnama) asthe pnmery curnculum which emphasizes loyelty to the president and his spiritual teachings, resulted in devastating detenoration of education quality and relevanceand created e vast knowledge vacuum which will affect many generations to come. Young people under the age of 15 make up neariy 35 percent of the populationin Turi


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