Title: Accused's Providence Proffer, 29 Jan 13

Release Date: 2014-03-20

Text: UNCLASSIFIEDUnmarked redactions were present when the Army received 2thisdocument.9 January2013MEMORANDUM THRU C i v i l i a n Defense Counsel, 11 South A n g e l l Street#317, Providence, RI 02906M i l i t a r y Defense Counsel, U.S. Army T r i a l Defense Service(USATDS), Fort B e l v o i r , VA 22060FOR M i l i t a r y Judge, U.S. Army F i r s t J u d i c i a l C i r c u i t , FortMeade, MD 20755T r i a l Counsel, J o i n t Force Headquarters - N a t i o n a l C a p i t a lR e g i o n / M i l i t a r y D i s t r i c t of Washington (JFHQ-NCR/MDW), 103 3rdAvenue SW, Fort McNair, DC 20319-5058SUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)1. (U) The f o l l o w i n g f a c t s are provided i n support o f theprovidence i n q u i r y f o r my c o u r t - m a r t i a l . United States v. PFCBradley E. Manning.2.(U) Personal Facts.a. (U) I am a t w e n t y - f i v e (25) year-old P r i v a t e F i r s t Classi n the United States Army, c u r r e n t l y assigned t o Headquartersand Headquarters Company (HHC), U.S. Army Garrison (USAG), J o i n tBase Myer-Henderson H a l l , Fort Myer, V i r g i n i a , P r i o r t o t h i sassignment, I was assigned t o HHC,.2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10thMountain D i v i s i o n , Fort Drum, New York. My Primary M i l i t a r yOccupational S p e c i a l t y (PMOS) i s 35F, " I n t e l l i g e n c e Analyst."b. (U) I entered A c t i v e Duty s t a t u s on 2 October 2007. Ie n l i s t e d w i t h the hope o f o b t a i n i n g both r e a l - w o r l d experienceand earning b e n e f i t s under the Gl B i l l f o r c o l l e g eopportunities.3.(U) Facts Regarding My p o s i t i o n as an I n t e l l i g e n c e Analyst.a. (U) I n order t o e n l i s t i n the Array, I took the standardArmed Services A p t i t u d e B a t t e r y (ASVAB). My score on t h i sb a t t e r y was high enough f o r me t o q u a l i f y f o r any e n l i s t e d MOSp o s i t i o n . My r e c r u i t e r informed me t h a t I should s e l e c t an MOSt h a t complimented my i n t e r e s t s outside the m i l i t a r y . I nresponse, I t o l d him I was i n t e r e s t e d i n g e o p o l i t i c a l mattersand i n f o r m a t i o n technology. He suggested I consider becoming anintelligence analyst.UNCLASSIFIEDAPPELLATE EXHIBITj^f^PAGE REFERENCED:.PAGE OF PAGESUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)^.S. v,b. (U) A f t e r researching the I n t e l l i g e n c e Analyst p o s i t i o n , Iagreed t h a t t h i s would be a good f i t f o r me. I n p a r t i c u l a r , Ienjoyed t h e f a c t t h a t an analyst would use i n f o r m a t i o n derivedfrom a v a r i e t y o f sources t o create work products t h a t informedthe command on i t s a v a i l a b l e choices f o r determining the bestcourses o f a c t i o n (COAs). Although the MOS r e q u i r e d a workingknowledge of computers, i t p r i m a r i l y required me t o consider howraw i n f o r m a t i o n can be combined w i t h other a v a i l a b l ei n t e l l i g e n c e sources i n order t o create products t h a t assistedthe command i n i t s s i t u a t i o n a l awareness (SA). I assessed t h a tmy n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t i n g e o p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and my computers k i l l s would make me an e x c e l l e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e Analyst.c. (U) A f t e r e n l i s t i n g , I reported t o the Fort Meade M i l i t a r yEntrance Processing S t a t i o n (MEPS) on 01 October 2007. I thent r a v e l e d t o , and reported a t Fort I^eonard Wood on 02 October2007 t o begin Basic Combat T r a i n i n g (BCT).d. (U) Once a t Fort Leonard Wood, I q u i c k l y r e a l i s e d t h a t Iwas n e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y nor mentally prepared f o r therequirements o f BCT. My BCT experience l a s t e d s i x (6) monthsi n s t e a d o f the normal t e n (10) weeks. Due t o medical issues, Iwas placed i n a h o l d s t a t u s . A p h y s i c a l examination i n d i c a t e d Isustained i n j u r i e s t o my r i g h t shoulder and l e f t f o o t . Due t othese i n j u r i e s I was unable t o continue BCT.e. (U) During medical hold, I was informed t h a t I may Ir^e outprocessed from the Army. However, I r e s i s t e d ^eing "chaptered"because I f e l t I could overcome my medical issues and continue^^l^V^.f . On 20 January ^00^, I returned t o BCT. This time I wasb e t t e r prepared, and I completed t r a i n i n g on 2 A p r i l 200^. Ithen r e p o r t e d f o r the MOS-specific Advanced I n d i v i d u a l T r a i n i n g(AIT) on 7 A p r i l 2008.g. (U) AIT was an enjoyable experience f o r me. Unlike BCT,where I f e l t d i f f e r e n t than the other Soldiers, I f i t i n and d i dw e l l . I p r e f e r r e d t h e mental challenges of reviewing a largeamount o f i n f o r m a t i o n from various sources and t r y i n g t o createu s e f u l , or " a c t i o n a b l e , " products. I e s p e c i a l l y enjoyed thep r a c t i c e of a n a l y s i s through the use of computer a p p l i c a t i o n sand methods I was f a m i l i a r w i t h .2UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S.v.h. (U) I graduated from AIT on 16 August 2008 and reported t omy f i r s t duty s t a t i o n . Fort Drum, New York on 28 August 2008.As an a n a l y s t . S i g n i f i c a n t A c t i v i t i e s (SIGACTs) were a frequentsource of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r me t o use i n c r e a t i n g work products.I s t a r t e d working e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h SIGACTs e a r l y a f t e r mya r r i v a l at Fort Drum. My computer background allowed me t o u s ethe t o o l s organic t o the D i s t r i b u t e d Common Ground System—Army(DCGS-A) computers and create polished work products f o r the 2ndBrigade Comlroat Team (2BCT) chain of command.i . (U) The non-commissioned-officer-in-charge(NCOIC) of theS2 s e c t i o n , Master Sergeant (MSG) David P. Adkins recognised mys k i l l s and p o t e n t i a l , and tasked me t o work on a t o o l abandonedby a p r e v i o u s l y assigned a n a l y s t , the " I n c i d e n t Tracker."TheI n c i d e n t Tracker was viewed as a backup t o the CombinedI n f o r m a t i o n Data Network Exchange (CIONE) and a u n i t h i s t o r i c a lreference t o o l .^. (U) I n the months preceding my upcoming deployment, Iworked on c r e a t i n g a new version of the i n c i d e n t t r a c k e r , andused SIGACTs t o populate i t .The SIGACTs I used were fromAfghanistan, because at the time our u n i t was scheduled t odeploy t o the I^ogar and Wardak provinces Afghanistan. Later,our u n i t was reassigned t o deploy t o eastern Baghdad, I r a q . Att h a t p o i n t , I removed the Afghanistan SIGACTs and switched t oI r a q SIGACTs.k. (U) As an a n a l y s t , I view the SIGACTs as h i s t o r i c a l data.I b e l i e v e t h i s view i s shared by other a l l - s o u r c e analysts asw e l l . SIGACTs give a f i r s t - l o o k impression of a s p e c i f i c ori s o l a t e d ^vent. This event can be an Improvised ExplosiveDevise (IED) a t t a c k , a Small Arms F i r e (SAF) engagement w i t h ah o s t i l e f o r c e , or any other event a s p e c i f i c u n i t documented andreported i n r e a l - t i m e . I n my perspective, the i n f o r m a t i o ncontained w i t h i n a s i n g l e SIGACT, or group of SIGACTs i s notvery s e n s i t i v e . The events encapsulated w i t h i n most SIGACTsi n v o l v e e i t h e r enemy engagements or c a s u a l t i e s . Most of t h i si n f o r m a t i o n i s p u b l i c l y reported by the Public A f f a i r s O f f i c e(PAO), embedded media pools, or host-nation (HN) media.3UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S. v.1. (U) As I s t a r t e d working w i t h SIGACTs, I f e l t they weres i m i l a r t o a d a i l y j o u r n a l or log t h a t a person may keep. Theycapture what happens on a p a r t i c u l a r day and time. They arecreated immediately a f t e r the event and are p o t e n t i a l l y updatedover a p e r i o d o f hours u n t i l a f i n a l v e r s i o n i s published onCIDNE.^^^^^^m. (U) Each u n i t has i t s own standard operating procedure(SOP) f o r r e p o r t i n g and recording SIGACTs. The SOP may d i f f e rbetween r e p o r t i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r deployment, and r e p o r t i n g i ng a r r i s o n . I n g a r r i s o n , a SIGACT normally i n v o l v e s personnelissues, such as a D r i v i n g Under-the-Influence (DUI) i n c i d e n t , oran automobile accident i n v o l v i n g the death or serious i n j u r y o fa S o l d i e r . The r e p o r t s t a r t s a t the company l e v e l , and goes upto the b a t t a l i o n , brigade, and even up t o the d i v i s i o n l e v e l .In a deployed environment, a u n i t may observe or p a r t i c i p a t e i nan event and the platoon leader or platoon sergeant may reportthe event as a SIGACT t o the Company Headquarters through ther a d i o transmission operator (RTO). The commander or RTO w i l lthen forward the r e p o r t t o the B a t t a l i o n B a t t l e c a p t a i n or B a t t l eNon-commissioned o f f i c e r (NCO). Once the B a t t a l i o nBattlecaptari^n or B a t t l e NCO receives the r e p o r t , they w i l leither:(1) N o t i f y t h e B a t t a l i o n Operations O f f i c e r (S3).(^) Conduct an a c t i o n , such as launching the QuickReaction Force (QRF).(^) t^^^o^d Lh^ ^ v ^ i ^ t^^p^^L ^ui^^h^^ ^^po^t^ It^ u^ t^h^chain of command t o the Brigade.The recording o f each event i s done by r a d i o or over the SecretI n t e r n e t Protocol Router Network (SIPl^Net), normally by anassigned S o l d i e r , u s u a l l y j u n i o r e n l i s t e d (E-4 and below).n. (U) Once a SIGACT i s reported, the SIGACT i s f u r t h e r sentup t h e chain o f command. At each l e v e l , a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o ncan e i t h e r be added o r corrected as needed. Normally, w i t h i n 2^to ^8 hours, t h e updating and r e p o r t i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r SIGACTi s complete. Eventually, a l l reports and SIGACTs go through thechain o f command from Brigade t o D i v i s i o n , and D i v i s i o n t oCorps. At Corps-level, the SIGACT i s f i n a l i z e d and published.^UNCLASSIFIED^^i^^^^UNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S. v.1^^o. (U) The CIDNE system contains a database t h a t i s used bythousands of Department of Defense (DoD) personnel, i n c l u d i n gS o l d i e r s , c i v i l i a n s , and c o n t r a c t o r support.I t was the U.S.Central Command (CENTCOM) r e p o r t i n g t o o l f o r o p e r a t i o n a lr e p o r t i n g i n I r a q and Afghanistan.Two separate but s i m i l a rdatabases were maintained f o r each t h e a t e r , "CIDNE-I" f o r I r a qand "CIDNE-A" f o r Afghanistan.'^^p. (U) Each datal^ase encompasses over a hundred types o freports and other h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r access. Theycontain m i l l i o n s o f v e t t e d and f i n a l i s e d records i n c l u d i n go p e r a t i o n a l and i n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t i n g . CIDNE was created t oc o l l e c t and analyze battlespace data t o provide d a i l y operationand i n t e l l i g e n c e community (IC) r e p o r t i n g r e l e v a n t t o acor^ander^s d a i l y decision mak:1ng process.q. (U) The CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A databases contain r e p o r t i n gand analysis f i e l d s from m u l t i p l e d i s c i p l i n e s i n c l u d i n g :(1) Human I n t e l l i g e n c e (HUM^INT) r e p o r t s .(2) PsychologicalOperations (PSYOP) r e p o r t s .(3) Engagement r e p o r t s .(^) Counter-Improvised Explosive Device (CIED) r e p o r t s .(5) SIGACT r e p o r t s .(^) Targetingreports.(7) S o c i a l - C u l t u r a l r e p o r t s .(8) C i v i l A f f a i r s r e p o r t s .(^) Human T e r r a i n r e p o r t i n g .Ir. (U) As an i n t e l l i g e n c e analyst, I had u n l i m i t e d access t othe CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A databases and the i n f o r m a t i o n containedw i t h i n them. Although each t a b l e w i t h i n the databases i simportant, I p r i m a r i l y d e a l t w i t h HUMINT r e p o r t s , SIGACTr e p o r t s , and CIED r e p o r t s because these reports were used t ocreate the work product I was required t o p u b l i s h as an analyst.I5UNCLASSIFIED^^^^^iI^UNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)s. (U) When working on an assignment, I looked anywhere andeverywhere f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . As an a l l - s o u r c e analyst, t h i s wassomething t h a t was expected. The DCGS-A systems had databasesb u i l t i n , and I u t i l i z e d them on a d a i l y basis. This includesthe search t o o l s a v a i l a b l e on DCGS-A systems on SIPRNet such asQuery-Tree, and the DoD and I n t e l i n k search engines.t . (U) P r i m a r i l y , I u t i l i z e d the CIDNE database, using t h eh i s t o r i c a l and HUMINT r e p o r t i n g t o conduct my analysis andprovide ioackup f o r my work product. I d i d s t a t i s t i c a l analysison h i s t o r i c a l data, i n c l u d i n g SIGACTs, t o loack up analyses t h a twere based on HUMINT r e p o r t i n g and produce charts, graphs, andtaL^les. I also created maps and charts t o conduct p r e d i c t i v eanalysis based on s t a t i s t i c a l trends. The SIGACT r e p o r t i n gprovided a reference p o i n t f o r what occurred, and providedmyself and other analysts w i t h the inforrmation t o conclude apossible outcome.u. (U) Although SIGACT r e p o r t i n g i s s e n s i t i v e a t the time o ft h e i r c r e a t i o n , t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y normally d i s s i p a t e s w i t h i n ^8t o 72 hours as the i n f o r m a t i o n i s e i t h e r p u b l i c l y released, orthe u n i t involv^ed i s no longer i n the area and not i n danger.I t i s my understanding t h a t the SIGACT reports remain c l a s s i f i e donly because they are maintained w i t h i n CIDNE, because i t i sonly accessible on SIPRNet. Everything on CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A,t o include SIGACT r e p o r t i n g was t r e a t e d as c l a s s i f i e dinformation.6UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.Private F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)^. (U) Facts Regarding Storage o f SIGACT Reports.a. (U) As p a r t o f my t r a i n i n g at Fort Drum, I was i n s t r u c t e dt o ensure t h a t I create back-ups of my work product.The needt o create back-ups was p a r t i c u l a r l y acute given t h e r e l a t i v ei n s t a b i l i t y o f and u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f the computer systems we usedi n the f i e l d and during deployment. These computer systemsincluded both organic and theater-provided equipment (TPE) DCGSA machines. The organic DCGS-A machines we brought w i t h us i n t othe f i e l d and on deployment were D e l l M-^0 laptops, and the TPEDCGS-A machines were Alienware brand laptops.b. (U) The M-^0 DCGS-A laptops were the p r e f e r r e d machine t ouse, as they were s l i g h t l y f a s t e r , and had fewer problems w i t hdust and temperature than the TPE Alienware laptops.c. (U) I used several DCGS-A machines during the deploymentdue t o various t e c h n i c a l problems w i t h the laptops. With theseissues, several analysts l o s t i n f o r m a t i o n , but I never l o s ti n f o r m a t i o n due t o the m u l t i p l e )::^ack-ups I created.d. (U)I attempted t o back-up as much r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n asp o s s i b l e . I would save the i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t I , o r anotheranalyst could q u i c k l y access i t when a machine crashed, SIPRNetc o n n e c t i v i t y was down, o r I f o r g o t where data was stored. Whenbacking-up i n f o r m a t i o n I would do one o r a l l o f the f o l l o w i n gt h i n g s , ):^ased on my t r a i n i n g :(1) (U) Physical Back-up. I t r i e d t o keep p h y s i c a l backupcopies o f i n f o r m a t i o n on paper, ^o i n f o r m a t i o n oould I:^e gr^L^L^dq u i c k l y . Also, i t was easier t o l:^rief from hard-copies researchand HUMINT r e p o r t s .(2) (U) Local Drive Back-up. I t r i e d t o s o r t outi n f o r m a t i o n I deemed relevant and keep complete copies o f thei n f o r m a t i o n on each o f the computers I used i n the TemporaryS e n s i t i v e Compartmented Information F a c i l i t y (T-SCIF), i n c l u d i n gmy primary and secondary DCGS-A machines. This was stored undermy u s e r - p r o f i l e on the "desktop."(3) (U) Shared Drive Backup. Each analyst had access t o a^^T-Drive" shared across the SIPRNet. I t allowed others t o accessi n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was stored on i t . S6 operated t h e "T-Drive."7UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S,P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)(^) (U) Compact Disc Re-^Writable (CD-RW) Back-up. Forl a r g e r datasets, I saved the i n f o r m a t i o n onto a r e - w r i t a b l ed i s c , la)^eled t h e discs and stored them i n the conference roomof the T-SCIF.e. (U) This redundancy permitted us the a b i l i t y t o not worryabout i n f o r m a t i o n l o s s . I f a system crashed, I could e a s i l yp u l l the i n f o r m a t i o n from my secondary computer, the "T-Drive,"or one o f t h e CD-RWs. I f another analyst wanted access t o mydata, but I was unavailable, she could f i n d my put^lishedproducts d i r e c t o r y on t h e "T-Drive" or on the CD-RWs. I sorteda l l o f my products and research by date, time, and group, andupdated t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on each o f the storage methods t o ensuret h a t the l a t e s t i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o them.f. (U) During the deployment, I had several o f t h e DCGS-Amachines crash on me. Whenever the computer crashed, I usuallyl o s t i n f o r m a t i o n , but the redundancy method ensured my a b i l i t yto q u i c k l y r e s t o r e o l d loackup data, and add my c u r r e n ti n f o r m a t i o n t o the machine when i t was repaired o r replaced.g. (U) I stored the backup CD-RWs o f l a r g e r datasets i n theconference room o f the T-SCTF or next t o my w o r k s t a t i o n . Imarked t h e CD-RWs ^ased on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l and i t scontent.U n c l a s s i f i e d CD-RWs were only labeled w i t h the contenttype, and not marked w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n markings.h. (U) Early on i n the deployment, I only saved and storedthe SIGACTs t h a t were w i t h i n or near our Operational Environment(OE).Later, I thought i t would be easier ^ust t o save a l l theSIGACTs onto a CD-RW. The process would not take very long t ocomplete, and so I downloaded the SIGACTs from CIDNE-I onto aCD-RW. A f t e r f i n i s h i n g w i t h CIDNE-I, I d i d the same w i t h CIDNEA. By downloading the CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A SIGACTs, I was ableto r e t r i e v e the i n f o r m a t i o n whenever I needed i t , and not r e l yupon the u n r e l i a b l e and slow SIPRNet c o n n e c t i v i t y needed t o" p u l l " them. Instead, I could ^ust f i n d the CD-RW, and open thepreloaded spreadsheet.i . This process began i n late-December 2009, and continuedthrough early-January 2010. I could q u i c k l y export one month o fthe SIGACT data a t a time, and download i n the background as Id i d other tasks.UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y — U.S^P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)^. (U) The process took approximately a week f o r each t a b l e .A f t e r downloading t h e SIGACT t a b l e s , I p e r i o d i c a l l y updated themby p u l l i n g only the most recent SIGACTs, and simply copying themand " p a s t i n g " them i n t o the database saved on CD-RW.k. (U) I never h i d the f a c t I had downloaded copies o f boththe SIGACT t a b l e s from CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A. They were stored ona p p r o p r i a t e l y l a b e l e d and marked CD-RWs stored i n the open. Iviews t h e saved copies o f the CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A SIGACT tablesas being f o r both my use, and the use of anyone w i t h i n the S2s e c t i o n d u r i n g SIPRNet c o n n e c t i v i t y issues.1. (U) I n a d d i t i o n t o the SIGACT t a b l e , I had a l a r g er e p o s i t o r y o f HUMINT r e p o r t s and CIED reports downloaded fromCIDNE-I. These contained reports t h a t were r e l e v a n t t o the areai n and around our OE, i n eastern Baghdad and the Diyala provinceof I r a q .m. (U) I n order t o compress the data t o f i t onto a CD-RW, Iused a compression a l g o r i t h m c a l l e d "B^ip2." The program usedt o compress the data i s c a l l e d "WinRAR." WinRAR i s ana p p l i c a t i o n t h a t i s f r e e and can e a s i l y be downloaded from theI n t e r n e t v i a t h e Non-secure I n t e r n e t Relay P r o t o c o l Network(NlPRNet). I downloaded WinRAR on NlPRNet and t r a n s f e r r e d i t t othe DCGS-A machine user p r o f i l e "desktop" using a CD-RW.n. (U) I d i d not t r y t o hide the f a c t t h a t I was downloadingWinRAR onto my SIPRNet OCGS-A computer. With the assistance ofthe B^ip2 compression a l g o r i t h m using the WinRAR program, I wasable t o f i t a l l the SIGACTs onto a s i n g l e CD-RW, and t h ^r e l e v a n t HUMINT and CIED r e p o r t s onto a separate CD-RW.9UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y - U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)5. (U) Facts regarding my knowledge o f the WikiLeaksOrgani:^ation (WLO)a. (U) I f i r s t became vaguely aware of WLO during my AIT a tFort Huachuca, A^. Though, I d i d not f u l l y pay a t t e n t i o n u n t i lWLO released purported Short Messaging System (SMS) messagesfrom 11 Septemioer 2001 on 25 November 2009. At t h a t time,references t o the release and the WLO website showed up i n myd a i l y Google News open source search f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t oU.S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y .b. (U) The s t o r i e s were about how WLO published approximately500,000 messages. I then reviewed the messages myself, andr e a l i z e d t h a t the posted messages were very l i k e l y r e a l giventhe sheer volume and d e t a i l o f the content.c. (U) A f t e r t h i s , I began conducting research on WLO. Iconducted searches on ^ o t h NlPRNet and SIPRNet on WLO beginningi n l a t e November 2009 and e a r l y December 2009. At t h i s time Ialso began t o r o u t i n e l y monitor the WLO website.d. (U) I n response t o one o f my searches i n December 2009, Ifound the U.S. Army C o u n t e r - i n t e l l i g e n c e Center (USACIC) r e p o r ton WLO. A f t e r reviewing the r e p o r t , I b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s reportwas the one t h a t my AIT i n s t r u c t o r referenced i n e a r l y 2008. Imay or may not have saved the r e p o r t on my DCGS-A w o r k s t a t i o n .I know I reviewed the document on other occasions throughoute a r l y 2010, and saved i t on both my primary and secondarylaptops.e. (U) A f t ^ r r ^ v i ^ w i n g t h ^ r e p o r t , I continued doing myresearch on WLO. However, based upon my open-source c o l l e c t i o n ,I discovered i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o n t r a d i c t e d the 2008 USACICr e p o r t , i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , s i m i l a r t o otherpress agencies, WLO seemed t o he dedicated t o exposing i l l e g a la c t i v i t i e s and c o r r u p t i o n . WLO received numerous awards andr e c o g n i t i o n f o r i t s r e p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Also, i n reviewingthe WLO wel^site, I found i n f o r m a t i o n regarding U.S. m i l i t a r ySOPs f o r Camp Delta a t Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and i n f o r m a t i o n onthen-outdated Rules o f Engagement (ROE) i n I r a q f o r cross-borderp u r s u i t s o f former members o f Saddam Hussein a l - T i k r i t i ^ sgovernment.10UNCLASSIFIEOUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y - U.S.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)v.f. (U) A f t e r seeing the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the WLOwebsite, I continued f o l l o w i n g i t and c o l l e c t i n g open-sourcei n f o r m a t i o n from i t . During t h i s time p e r i o d , I f o l l o w e dseveral o r g a n i z a t i o n s and groups, i n c l u d i n g wire press agenciessuch as the Associated Press and Reuters and p r i v a t ei n t e l l i g e n c e agencies i n c l u d i n g S t r a t e g i c Forecasting(STRATFOR). This p r a c t i c e was something I was t r a i n e d t o doduring AIT, and was something t h a t good analysts are expected t odo.g. (U) During the searches of WLO I found several pieces ofi n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I found u s e f u l i n my work as an a n a l y s t .S p e c i f i c a l l y , I r e c a l l WLO p u b l i s h i n g documents r e l a t i n g t oweapons t r a f f i c k i n g between two nations t h a t a f f e c t e d my OE.Ii n t e g r a t e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o one or more of my workproducts.h. (U) I n a d d i t i o n t o v i s i t i n g the WLO website, I beganf o l l o w i n g WLO using an I n s t a n t Relay Chat (IRC) c l i e n t c a l l e d"^-Chat" sometime i n e a r l y January 2010.IRC i s a p r o t o c o l f o rr e a l - t i m e i n t e r n e t conrmiunications by messaging or conferencing,c o l l o q u i a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as "chat rooms" or " c h a t s . T h e IRCchat rooms are designed f o r group communication i n discussionforums. Each IRC chat room i s c a l l e d a "channel." S i m i l a r to at e l e v i s i o n , you can " t u n e - i n " t o or " f o l l o w " a channel, so longas i t i s open and does not r e q u i r e an i n v i t e . Once c o i n i n g as p e c i f i c IRC conversation, other users i n the conversation cansee you have "coined" the room. On the I n t e r n e t , there arem i l l i o n s of d i f f e r e n t IRC channels across several services.Channel t o p i c s span a r a n g ^ o f t o p i c s , c o v e r i n g a l l k i n d ^ o fi n t e r e s t s and hoLI:^ies.i. (U) The primary reason f o r f o l l o w i n g WLO on IRC wasc u r i o s i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regards t o how and why they obtainedthe SMS messages referenced a^ove. I r e l i e v e d c o l l e c t i n gi n f o r m a t i o n on the WLO would a s s i s t me i n t h i s goal.^. (U) I n i t i a l l y , I simply observed the IRC conversations. Iwanted t o know how the o r g a n i z a t i o n was s t r u c t u r e d , and how theyobtained t h e i r data. The conversations I viewed were u s u a l l yt e c h n i c a l i n nature, but sometimes switched t o a l i v e l y debateon issues a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l f e l t s t r o n g l y about.11UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y ^P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S,k. (U) Over a p e r i o d of time, I became more i n v o l v e d i n thesediscussions, e s p e c i a l l y when the conversation turned t og e o p o l i t i c a l events and i n f o r m a t i o n t o p i c s , such as networkingand e n c r y p t i o n methods. Based on these observations I woulddescribe the WLO conversation as almost academic i n nature.1. (U) I n a d d i t i o n t o the WLO conversations, I p a r t i c i p a t e di n numerous other IRC channels across at l e a s t three d i f f e r e n tnetworks.The other IRC channels I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n normallyd e a l t w i t h t e c h n i c a l t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g the Linux and BerkeleyS e c u r i t y D i s t r i b u t i o n (BSD) Operating Systems (OS), networking,e n c r y p t i o n a l g o r i t h m s and techniques, a n d o t h e r m o r e p o l i t i c a lt o p i c s such as p o l i t i c s and queer r i g h t s .m. (U) I normally engaged i n m u l t i p l e IRC conversationssimultaneously, mostly p u b l i c l y t^ut o f t e n p r i v a t e l y . The ^-Chatc l i e n t enabled me t o manage these m u l t i p l e conversations acrossd i f f e r e n t channels and servers. The screen f o r ^-Chat was o f t e nbusy, but experience enabled me t o see when something wasi n t e r e s t i n g . I would then s e l e c t the conversation and e i t h e robserve or p a r t i c i p a t e .n. (U) I r e a l l y enjoyed the IRC conversations p e r t a i n i n g t oHowever, at some p o i n t i n l a t e Februaryand i n v o l v i n g the WLO.or e a r l y March, the WLO IRC channel was no longer accessible.Instead, the r e g u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t s of t h i s channel switched t ousing a "Jabber" server. Jat^l^er i s another I n t e r n e tcommunication t o o l , s i m i l a r , but more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than IRC.The IRC and Jabber conversations allowed me t o f e e l connected t oothers ^v^n when alone. Th^y helped me pass t h ^ time and ke^pmotivated throughout the deployment.12UNCLASSIFIEOUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y - U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)6. (U) Facts regarding the unauthorized storage and d i s c l o s u r eof the SIGACTs.a. (U) As i n d i c a t e d above, I created copies of the CIDNE-Iand CIDNE-A SIGACTs tattles as p a r t of the process of backing upi n f o r m a t i o n . At the time I d i d so, I d i d not i n t e n d t o use t h i si n f o r m a t i o n f o r any purpose other than f o r back-up. However, Il a t e r decided t o release t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p u b l i c l y . At t h a ttime I b e l i e v e d , and s t i l l b e l i e v e , t h a t these t a b l e s are two ofthe most s i g n i f i c a n t documents of our time.b. (U) On 8 January 2010, I c o l l e c t e d the CD-RW I stored i nthe conference room of the T-SCIF and placed i t i n t o the cargopocket of my Army Combat Uniform (ACU). At the end of my s h i f t ,I took the CD-RW out of the T-SCIF and brought i t t o myContainerized Housing U n i t (CHU). I copied the data onto mypersonal l a p t o p . Later, at the beginning of my s h i f t , Ireturned the CD-RW back t o the conference room of the T-SCIF.c. (U) At the time I saved the SIGACTs t o my laptop, Iplanned t o take them w i t h me on mid-tour leave, and decide whatt o do w i t h them. At some p o i n t p r i o r t o mid-tour leave, It r a n s f e r r e d the i n f o r m a t i o n from my computer t o a SecuredD i g i t a l memory card f o r my d i g i t a l camera. The SD card f o r thecamera also worked on my computer, and allowed me t o s t o r e theSIGACT t a b l e s i n a secure manner f o r t r a n s p o r t .d. (U) I began mid-tour leave on 23 January 2010, f l y i n g fromA t l a n t a , GA t o Reagan N a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i n V i r g i n i a . I a r r i v e dat t^h^ home of my aunt, O^I^i^a M. Van Alstyne, i n Potomac, MD andq u i c k l y got i n t o contact w i t h my then-lrooyfri^nd T y l e r R.Watkins. T y l e r , then a student at Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y i nWaltham, MA, and I made plans f o r me t o v i s i t i n the Boston, MAarea. I was e x c i t e d t o see T y l e r , and planned on t a l k i n g t oTyler about where our r e l a t i o n s h i p was going, and about my timei n Iraq.e. (U) However, when I a r r i v e d i n the Boston area, T y l e r andI seemed t o have become d i s t a n t . He d i d not seem very e x c i t e dabout my r e t u r n from I r a q . I t r i e d t a l k i n g t o him about ourr e l a t i o n s h i p , but he refused t o make any plans. I also t r i e dr a i s i n g the t o p i c of r e l e a s i n g the CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A SIGACTt a b l e s t o the putolic.13UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y - U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)^i^^f . (U) I asked Tyler h y p o t h e t i c a l questions about what hewould do i f he had documents t h a t he thought the p u b l i c neededaccess t o . T y l e r didnot r e a l l y have a s p e c i f i c answer f o r me.He t r i e d t o answer the question and t^e supportive, but seemedconfused by the question and i t s context. I then t r i e d t o bemore s p e c i f i c , but he asked too many questions. Rather than t r yto e x p l a i n my dilemma, I decided t o ^ust drop t h e conversation.^^^^^g. (U) A f t e r a few days i n Waltham, I began f e e l i n g t h a t Iwas overstaying my welcome, and I returned t o Maryland. I spentthe remainder o f my time on leave i n the Washington, DC area.^^h. (U) During t h i s time, a b l i ^ ^ a r d bombarded the midA t l a n t i c , and I spent a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d o f time e s s e n t i a l l ystuck a t my aunt^s house i n Maryland. I began t o t h i n k aboutwhat I knew, and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n I s t i l l had i n my possession.For me, the SIGACTs represented the on-the-ground r e a l i t y o fboth the c o n f l i c t s i n I r a q and Afghanistan.I f e l t we werer i s k i n g so much f o r people t h a t seemed u n w i l l i n g t o cooperatew i t h us, l e a d i n g t o f r u s t r a t i o n and hatred on both sides.^^i. (U) I began t o become depressed a t the s i t u a t i o n t h a t wefound ourselves i n c r e a s i n g l y mired i n , y e a r - a f t e r - y e a r . TheSIGACTs documented t h i s i n great d e t a i l , and provided context t owhat we were seeing on-the-ground. I n attempting t o conductc o u n t e r - t e r r o r i s m (CT) and counter-insurgency (COIN) operations,we became olosessed w i t h c a p t u r i n g and k i l l i n g human t a r g e t s onl i s t s , on being suspicious o f and avoiding cooperation w i t h ourh o s t - n a t i o n p a r t n e r s , and i g n o r i n g the second and t h i r d ordere f f e c t s o f accomplishing short-term goals and missions.^. (U) I b e l i e v e d t h a t i f t h e general p u b l i c , e s p e c i a l l y theAmerican p u b l i c , had access t o the i n f o r m a t i o n contained w i t h i nthe CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A t a b l e s , t h i s could spark a domesticdebate on t h e r o l e o f the m i l i t a r y and our f o r e i g n p o l i c y i ngeneral, as w e l l as i t r e l a t e d t o I r a q and Afghanistan.I alsob e l i e v e d a d e t a i l e d analysis of the data over a long period oftime, by d i f f e r e n t sectors o f s o c i e t y , might cause s o c i e t y t ore-evaluate the need, or even the desire t o engage i n CT andCOIN operations t h a t ignored t h e complex dynamics o f the peoplel i v i n g i n the a f f e c t e d environment each day.1^UNCLASSIFIED,iiUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y -- U.S.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)v.k. (U) At my aunt^s house, I debated about what I should dow i t h the SIGACTs. I n p a r t i c u l a r , whether I should hold on t othem, or d i s c l o s e them through a press agency. At t h i s p o i n t , Idecided i t made sense t o t r y and d i s c l o s e the SIGACT t a b l e s t oan American newspaper.1. (U) I f i r s t c a l l e d my l o c a l newspaper, the Washington Postand spoke w i t h a woman saying she was a r e p o r t e r . I asked heri f the Washington Post would be i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c e i v i n gi n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would have enormous value t o the Americanp u b l i c . Although we spoke f o r about f i v e minutes concerning thegeneral nature of what I possessed, I do not b e l i e v e she took mes e r i o u s l y . She informed me t h a t the Washington Post wouldp o s s i b l y be i n t e r e s t e d , but t h a t such decisions are made onlya f t e r seeing the i n f o r m a t i o n I was r e f e r r i n g t o , and a f t e rc o n s i d e r a t i o n by the senior e d i t o r s .m. (U) I then decided t o contact the l a r g e s t and most popularnewspaper, the New York Times. I c a l l e d the p u b l i c e d i t o rnumber on the New York Times website. The phone rang and wasanswered by a machine. I went through the menu t o the sectionf o r news t i p s and was routed t o an answering machine. I l e f t amessage s t a t i n g I had access t o i n f o r m a t i o n about I r a q andAfghanistan t h a t I b e l i e v e d was very important. However,despite l e a v i n g my Skype phone number and personal emailaddress, I never received a r e p l y from the New York Times.n. (U) I also b r i e f l y considered dropping i n t o the o f f i c e f o rthe p o l i t i c a l commentary blog P o l i t i c o . However, the weatherc o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g my leave hampered my e f f o r t s t o t i ^ a v ^ l .o. (U) A f t e r these f a i l e d e f f o r t s , I u l t i m a t e l y decided t osubmit the m a t e r i a l s t o the WLO.I was not sure i f WLO woulda c t u a l l y p u b l i s h the SIGACT t a L l e s , or^ even i f they d i dp u b l i s h , I was concerned they might not be n o t i c e d by theAmerican media. However, based on what I read about WLO throughmy research described above, t h i s seemed t o be the best mediumf o r p u b l i s h i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o the world w i t h i n my reach.p. (U) At my aunt^s house, I coined i n on an IRC conversationand s t a t e d I had i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t needed t o he shared w i t h theworld. I wrote t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n would help document thet r u e costs of the wars i n I r a q and Afghanistan.15UNCLASSIFIEOUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S,q. (U) One o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the IRC asked me t o describethe i n f o r m a t i o n . However, before I could describe thei n f o r m a t i o n , another i n d i v i d u a l pointed me t o the l i n k f o r theWLO wehsite^s o n l i n e submission system.r. (U) A f t e r ending my IRC connection, I considered myoptions one more time. U l t i m a t e l y , I f e l t t h a t the r i g h t t h i n gto do was t o release the SIGACTs. On 3 February 2010, I v i s i t e dthe WLO website on my computer, and c l i c k e d on the "SubmitDocuments" l i n k . Next, I found the "submit your i n f o r m a t i o no n l i n e l i n k , " and elected t o submit the SIGACTs v i a the TOROnion Router (TOR) anonymizing network by a s p e c i a l l i n k .s. (U) TOR i s a system intended t o provide anonymity o n l i n e .The software routes I n t e r n e t t r a f f i c through network of serversand other TOR c l i e n t s i n order t o conceal a user^s l o c a t i o n andi d e n t i t y . I was f a m i l i a r w i t h TOR and had i t p r e v i o u s l yi n s t a l l e d on my computer t o anonymously monitor the s o c i a l mediawebsites of m i l i t i a groups o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n c e n t r a l I r a q .t . (U) I f o l l o w e d the prompts and attached the compresseddata f i l e s of the CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A SIGACTs. I attached at e x t f i l e I d r a f t e d w h i l e preparing t o provide the documents t othe Washington Post. I t provided rough g u i d e l i n e s s t a t i n g " i t ^ salready been s a n i t i z e d of any source i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .You might need t o s i t on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , perhaps 90-180 days,to f i g u r e out how best t o release such a large amount of data,and t o p r o t e c t source. This i s possit^ly one of the mores i g n i f i c a n t documents of our time, removing the fog of war, andr e v e a l i n g t h ^ ti^ue n a t u r e o f ^ I s t c ^ n t u ^ y a^ymm^tric w ^ r f ^ ^ ^ .Have a good day." A f t e r sending t h i s , I l e f t the SD card i n acamera case a t my aunt^s house, i n the event I needed i t againi n the f u t u r e .u. (U) I r e t u r n e d from mid-tour leave on 11 February 2010.Although the i n f o r m a t i o n had not yet been published by the WLO,I f e l t a sense of r e l i e f by them having i t . I f e l t hadaccomplished something t h a t allowed me t o have a c l e a rconscience based upon what I had seen, read about and knew werehappening i n both I r a q and Afghanistan every day.16UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S,7. (U) Facts regarding the unauthorized storage and d i s c l o s u r eof "10REY^JAVI^13".a. (U) I f i r s t became aware of d i p l o m a t i c cables d u r i n g myt r a i n i n g p e r i o d i n AIT. I l a t e r learned about the Department ofState (DOS) Net-Centric Diplomacy (NCD) p o r t a l from the 2-lOBCTS2, Captain (CPT) Steven Lim. CPT Lim sent a section-wide emailt o the other analysts and o f f i c e r s i n l a t e December 2009c o n t a i n i n g the SIPRNet l i n k t o the p o r t a l , along w i t hi n s t r u c t i o n s t o look at the cables contained w i t h i n andi n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o our work product. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , Ialso n o t i c e d t h a t d i p l o m a t i c cables were being r e f e r r e d t o i nproducts from the Corps-level, U.S. Forces-Iraq (USF-I).h^. (U) Based on CPT Lim^s d i r e c t i o n t o become f a m i l i a r w i t hi t s contents, I read v i r t u a l l y every published cable concerningI r a q . I also l:oegan scanning the database and reading other,random, cables t h a t piqued my c u r i o s i t y . I t was around t h i stime, i n early-to-mid-January 2010 t h a t I began searching thedatabase f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on I c e l a n d . I became i n t e r e s t e d i nI c e l a n d due t o IRC conversations I viewed i n the WLO channeldiscussed an issue c a l l e d "Icesave." At t h i s time, I was notvery f a m i l i a r w i t h the t o p i c , but i t seemed t o be a b i g issuef o r those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the conversation. This i s when Idecided t o i n v e s t i g a t e , and conduct a few searches on Iceland t of i n d out more.c. (U) At the time, I d i d not f i n d anything discussing the"Icesave" issue, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . I thenconducted an open source search f o r "Icesave." I then learnedt h a t Iceland was i n v o l v e d i n a dispute w i t h the United l^ingdom(Ul^) and Netherlands concerning the f i n a n c i a l collapse of one ormore of Iceland^s banks. According t o open source r e p o r t s , muchof the put^lic controversy i n v o l v e d the U^^s use of " a n t i t e r r o r i s m l e g i s l a t i o n " against Iceland i n order t o freezeI c e l a n d i c assets f o r payment of the guarantees f o r Ul^ depositorst h a t l o s t money.d. (U) S h o r t l y a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from mid-tour leave, Ireturned t o the NCD t o search f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on Iceland and"Icesave" as the t o p i c had not abated on the WLO IRC channel.To my s u r p r i s e , on 14 February 2010, I found the cable10REY^JAVI1^13 which referenced the "Icesave" issue d i r e c t l y .17UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S. v.e. (U) The cable, published on 13 January 2010, was ^ust overtwo pages i n l e n g t h . I read the cable, and q u i c k l y concludedt h a t I c e l a n d was e s s e n t i a l l y being b u l l i e d , d i p l o m a t i c a l l y , bytwo l a r g e r European powers. I t appeared t o me t h a t Iceland wasout o f v i a b l e s o l u t i o n s , and was now coming t o the U.S. f o rassistance. Despite t h e i r q u i e t request f o r assistance, i t d i dnot appear we were going t o do anything. From my perspective,i t appeared we were not g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d due t o t h e lack o f longterm g e o p o l i t i c a l b e n e f i t t o do so.f . (U) A f t e r d i g e s t i n g the contents o f 10REY1^JAVI1^13, Idebated on whether t h i s was something I should send t o the WLO.At t h i s p o i n t , the WLO had not put^lished nor acknowledgedr e c e i p t o f t h e CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A SIGACT t a b l e s . Despite notknowing i f t h e SIGACTs were a p r i o r i t y f o r the WLO, I decidedthe cable was something t h a t would be important, and I f e l t Imight be able t o r i g h t a wrong by having them p u b l i s h t h i sdocument. I burned the i n f o r m a t i o n onto a CD-RW on 15 February2010, took i t t o my CHU and saved i t onto my personal laptop.g. (U) I navigated t o t h e WLO website v i a a TOR connectionl i k e before, and uploaded the document v i a t h e secure form.Amazingly, the WLO published 10REY^JAVI^13 w i t h i n hours, provingt h a t the form worked and t h a t they must have received the SIGACTtables.1^UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)8. (U) Facts regarding the unauthorized storage and d i s c l o s u r eof the 12 J u l y 2007 A i r Weapons Team (AWT) video.a. (1^) During the mid-February 2010 timeframe, the 2-lOBCTTargeting a n a l y s t , t h e n - S p e c i a l i s t (SPC) J i h r l e a h W. Showman andothers discussed video Ms. Showman found on the "T-Drive." Thevideo depicted a several i n d i v i d u a l s being engaged by an A i rWeapons Team (AWT). At f i r s t , I d i d not consider the video verys p e c i a l , as I had viewed countless other "war-porn" type videosd e p i c t i n g combat. However, the recorded audio comments by theAWT crew and the second engagement i n the video, o f an unarmedbongo t r u c k , t r o u b l e d me.b. (U) Ms. Showman and a few other analysts and o f f i c e r s i nthe T-SCIF commented on the video, and debated whether the crewv i o l a t e d the Rules o f Engagement (ROE) i n the second engagement.I shied away from t h i s debate, and instead conducted someresearch on the event. I wanted t o l e a r n what happened, andwhether t h e r e was any background t o the events o f the day theevent occurred, 12 J u l y 2007.c. (U) Using Google, I searched f o r the event hy i t s date andgeneral l o c a t i o n . I found several news accounts i n v o l v i n g twoReuters employees who were k i l l e d during the AWT^s engagement.Another s t o r y explained t h a t Reuters requested f o r a copy of thevideo under the Freedom of I n f o r m a t i o n Act (FOIA). Reuterswanted t o view the video i n order t o be able t o understand whathappened, and improve t h e i r s a f e t y p r a c t i c e s i n combat ^ones. Aspokesperson f o r Reuters was quoted saying t h a t the video mighth^lp ^ v o i d ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ u i ^ ^ ^ i r ^ ^ ^t h ^ t^^g^^y, ^t^d l ^ ^ l i ^ v ^ d t h ^ ^ ^a compelling need f o r t h ^ immediate release o f the video.d. (U) Despite the submission o f a FOIA request, the newsaccount explained t h a t CENTCOM r e p l i e d t o Reuters, s t a t i n g t h a tthey could not give a timeframe f o r considering the FOIArequest, and the video might no longer e x i s t . Another s t o r y Ifound, w r i t t e n a year l a t e r , said t h a t even though Reuters wass t i l l pursuing t h e i r request, they s t i l l d i d not receive aformal response o r w r i t t e n determination i n accordance w i t h theFOIA.19UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S.v.e. (U) The f a c t n e i t h e r CENTCOM nor M u l t i - N a t i o n a l ForcesI r a q (MCF-I) would not v o l u n t a r i l y release the video troubled mef u r t h e r . I t was c l e a r t o me t h a t the event happened because theAWT mistakenly i d e n t i f i e d the Reuters employees w i t h a p o t e n t i a lt h r e a t , and t h a t the people i n the bongo t r u c k were merelyattempting t o a s s i s t the wounded. The people i n the van werenot a t h r e a t , but "good Samaritans."f . (U) The most alarming aspect of the video t o me, however,was the seemingly d e l i g h t f u l h l c o d l u s t they appeared t o have.They dehumanized the i n d i v i d u a l s they were engaging, and seemedt o not value human l i f e by r e f e r r i n g t o them as "dead l:^astards"and c o n g r a t u l a t i n g each other on the a b i l i t y t o k i l l i n largenumbers.g. (U) At one p o i n t i n the video, there i s an i n d i v i d u a l onthe ground attempting t o crawl t o safety. The i n d i v i d u a l i ss e r i o u s l y wounded. Instead of c a l l i n g f o r medical a t t e n t i o n t othe l o c a t i o n , one of the AWT crew memhers v e r b a l l y asked f o r thewounded person t o p i c k up a weapon so he would have a reason t oengage. For me, t h i s seems s i m i l a r t o a c h i l d t o r t u r i n g antsw i t h a magnifying glass.h. (U) While saddened by the AWT crew^s lack of concern at^outhuman l i f e , I was d i s t u r b e d by t h e i r response t o the discoveryof i n j u r e d c h i l d r e n at the scene. I n the video, you can see thebongo t r u c k d r i v i n g up t o a s s i s t the wounded i n d i v i d u a l . I nresponse, the AWT crew assumes the i n d i v i d u a l s are a t h r e a t .They repeatedly request f o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o f i r e on the bongot r u c k , and once granted, they engage t h ^ v e h i c l e at l e a s t s i ^times.i . (U) S h o r t l y a f t e r the second engagement, a mechanizedi n f a n t r y u n i t a r r i v e s at the scene. Within minutes, the AWTcrew learns t h a t c h i l d r e n were i n the van and, despite thei n j u r i e s , the crew e x h i b i t s no remorse. Instead, theydownplayed the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r actions saying " w e l l , i t ^ st h e i r f a u l t f o r b r i n g i n g t h e i r kids i n t o a b a t t l e . " TheAWTcrew members sound l i k e they lack sympathy f o r the c h i l d r e n ort h e i r parents. Later, i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g manner, theAWT crew v e r b a l i z e s enjoyment at the s i g h t of one of the groundvehicles d r i v i n g over the bodies.20UNCLASSIFIEOUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v,P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)^. (U) As I continued my research I found an a r t i c l ediscussing a book "The Good S o l d i e r s , " w r i t t e n by WashingtonPost w r i t e r David F i n k e l . I n Mr. Finkel^s hook, he w r i t e s aboutthe AWT a t t a c k . As I read an o n l i n e excerpt on "Google Books,"I followed Mr. Finkel^s account o f the event, along w i t h thevideo.I q u i c k l y r e a l i s e d Mr. Finkel was quoting, I f e e l i nverbatim, the audio communications o f the AWT crew. I t ^ s cleart o me t h a t Mr. F i n k e l obtained access and a copy o f the videoduring h i s tenure as an embedded j o u r n a l i s t .k. (U) I was aghast at Mr. Finkel^s p o r t r a y a l o f thei n c i d e n t . Reading h i s account, one would b e l i e v e the engagementwas somehow j u s t i f i e d as "payback" f o r an e a r l i e r a t t a c k t h a tlead t o the death o f a Soldier. Mr. F i n k e l ends h i s account ofthe engagement hy discussing how a Soldier f i n d s an i n d i v i d u a ls t i l l a l i v e from t h e a t t a c k . He w r i t e s t h a t the Soldier f i n d shim, and sees him gesture w i t h h i s two f o r e f i n g e r s together, acommon method i n the Middle-East t o communicate t h a t they aref r i e n d l y . However, instead of a s s i s t i n g him, the S o l d i e r makesan obscene gesture, extending h i s middle f i n g e r . The i n d i v i d u a lapparently dies s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . Reading t h i s , I can onlyt h i n k of how t h i s person was simply t r y i n g t o help others, andthen q u i c k l y f i n d s he needs help as w e l l . To make mattersworse, i n the l a s t moments o f h i s l i f e , he continues t o expressh i s f r i e n d l y i n t e n t , only t o f i n d himself r e c e i v i n g t h i s w e l lknown gesture o f " u n f r i e n d l i n e s s . " For me, i t ^ s a l l a b i g mess,and I^m l e f t wondering what these t h i n g s mean, and how i t a l lf i t s together.I t burdens me emotionally.I . (U) T ^av^d a co^y ^ f t h ^ video on my w o r k s t a t i o n . Isearched f o r , and found the ROE, ROW Annexes and a flowchartfrom the 2007 time p e r i o d , as w e l l as an u n c l a s s i f i e d ROE smartcard from 2006. On 15 February 2010, I burned these documentsonto a CD-RW, the same time I hurnediOREYl^JAVI^13 onto a CD-RW.m. (U) At t h e time, I placed the video and ROE i n f o r m a t i o nonto my personal laptop i n my CHU. I planned t o keep t h i si n f o r m a t i o n there u n t i l I redeployed i n Summer 2010. I plannedon p r o v i d i n g t h i s t o the Reuters o f f i c e i n London, UR t o a s s i s tthem i n preventing events such as t h i s i n the f u t u r e .21UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)n. (U) However, a f t e r the WLO published 10REY^JAVIR13, Ia l t e r e d my plans. I decided t o provide the video and ROEs t othem, so t h a t Reuters would have t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n before Iredeployed from I r a q . On about 21 February 2010, as describedabove, I used the WLO submission form and uploaded thedocuments.^^^^^^o. (U) The WLO released the video on 5 A p r i l 2010. A f t e r therelease, I was concerned about the impact of the video, and howi t would be perceived hy the general p u b l i c . I hoped the p u b l i cwould be as alarmed as me about the conduct of the AWT crewmembers. I wanted the American p u b l i c t o know t h a t not everyonei n I r a q and Afghanistan were t a r g e t s t h a t needed t o hen e u t r a l i z e d , hut r a t h e r people who were s t r u g g l i n g t o l i v e i nthe "pressure-cooker" environment of what we c a l l asymmetricwarfare.p. (U) A f t e r the release, I was encouraged hy the response i nthe media and general p u h l i c who observed the AWT video. As Ihoped, others were ^ust as t r o u b l e d , i f not more t r o u b l e d , thanme by what they saw. At t h i s time, I began seeing r e p o r t sclaiming t h a t DoD and CENTCOM could not confirm the a u t h e n t i c i t yof the video. A d d i t i o n a l l y , one of my supervisors CPT CaseyFulton (nee Martin) stated her b e l i e f t h a t the video was nota u t h e n t i c . I n response, I decided t o ensure t h a t thea u t h e n t i c i t y of the video would not he questioned i n the f u t u r e .On 25 A p r i l 2010 I e-mailed CPT Fulton a l i n k t o the video t h a twas on our "T-Drive" and t o a copy of the video puhlished hy WLOfrom the Open Source Center (OSC) so she could compare themh^^^^if.q. (U) Around t h i s timeframe, I burned a second CD-RWc o n t a i n i n g the AWT video. I n order t o make i t appear a u t h e n t i c ,I placed a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t i c k e r and wrote "Reuters FOIA Req"on i t s face. I placed the CD-RW i n one of my personal CD casesc o n t a i n i n g a set o f " S t a r t i n g out i n Arabic." I planned onm a i l i n g the CD-RW t o Reuters a f t e r I redeployed so they couldhave a copy t h a t was unquestionably a u t h e n t i c .^^^^^Ir. (U) Almost immediately a f t e r s u b m i t t i n g the AWT video andROE documents, I n o t i f i e d the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the WLO IRC t oexpect an important submission. I received a response from ani n d i v i d u a l going hy the handle of " o f f i c e . "22UNCLASSIFIED^^^UNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S. v.s. (U) At f i r s t our conversations were general i n nature, hutover time, as our conversations progressed, I assessed t h i si n d i v i d u a l t o be an important p a r t o f the WLO. Due t o thes t r i c t adherence o f anonymity hy the WLO, we never exchangedi d e n t i f y i n g informations however, I b e l i e v e d the i n d i v i d u a l wasl i k e l y Mr. J u l i a n Assange, Mr. Daniel Schmidt, or a proxyr e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Mr. Assange and Schmidt.t . (U) As t h e communications t r a n s f e r r e d from IRC t o t h eJabber c l i e n t , I gave " o f f i c e , " and l a t e r "pressassociation" thename o f "Nathaniel Frank" i n my address hook, a f t e r the authorof a hook I read i n 2009.u. (U) A f t e r a p e r i o d of time, I developed what I f e l t was af r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Nathaniel. Our mutual i n t e r e s t i ni n f o r m a t i o n technology and p o l i t i c s made our conversationsenjoyable. We engaged i n conversation o f t e n , sometimes as longas an hour o r more. I o f t e n looked forward t o my discussionsw i t h Nathaniel a f t e r work.V. (U) The anonymity t h a t provided hy TOR, the Jahher c l i e n t ,and WLO^s p o l i c y allowed me t o f e e l I could ^ust he myself, freeof the concerns o f s o c i a l l a b e l i n g and perceptions t h a t areo f t e n place upon me i n r e a l l i f e (IRL). IRL, I lacked closef r i e n d s h i p w i t h the people I worked w i t h i n my s e c t i o n , the S2sections i n subordinate b a t t a l i o n s , and 2BCT as a whole. Forinstance, I lacked close t i e s w i t h my roommate due t o h i sdiscomfort regarding my perceived sexual o r i e n t a t i o n .w.(U) Over t h ^ n ^ x t few months, I s t a y e d i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c tw i t h N a t h a n i e l . We conversed on n e a r l y a d a i l y basis, and If e l t we were developing a f r i e n d s h i p . The conversations coveredmany t o p i c s , and I enjoyed the a b i l i t y t o t a l k ahout p r e t t y muchanything, and not ^ust the p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t the WLO was workingon.X. (U) I n r e t r o s p e c t , I r e a l i z e these dynamics werea r t i f i c i a l , and were valued more hy myself than Nathaniel. Forme, these conversations represented an o p p o r t u n i t y t o escapefrom the immense pressures and a n x i e t y t h a t I experienced andb u i l t up throughout the deployment. I t seemed t h a t as I t r i e dharder t o " f i t i n " a t work, the more I seemed t o a l i e n a t e mypeers, and lose respect, t r u s t and the support I needed.23UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)^U.S. v.9. (U) Facts regarding the unauthorized storage and d i s c l o s u r eof documents r e l a t i n g t o detainments hy the I r a q i Federal Police(FP), the Detainee Assessment B r i e f s (DABs), and t h e USACICreport.a. (U) On 27 February 2010, a r e p o r t was received from asubordinate b a t t a l i o n . The r e p o r t described an event i n whichthe FP detained f i f t e e n (15) i n d i v i d u a l s f o r p r i n t i n g " a n t i I r a q i l i t e r a t u r e . " By 2 March 2010, I received i n s t r u c t i o n sfrom an S3 s e c t i o n o f f i c e r i n the 2-lOBCT T a c t i c a l OperationsCenter (TOC) t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e matter, and f i g u r e out who these"had guys" were, and how s i g n i f i c a n t t h i s event was f o r the FP.h. (U) Over t h e course o f my research, I found t h a t none o fthe i n d i v i d u a l s had previous t i e s w i t h a n t i - I r a q i actions orsuspected t e r r o r i s t o r m i l i t i a groups. A few hours l a t e r , Ireceived several photos from the scene from the subordinateb a t t a l i o n . They were a c c i d e n t l y sent t o an o f f i c e r on ad i f f e r e n t team i n the S2 s e c t i o n , and she forwarded them t o me.These photos included p i c t u r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l s , p a l e t t e s o fu n p r i n t e d paper, seized copies of the f i n a l p r i n t e d document,and a h i g h - r e s o l u t i o n photo o f the p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l .c. (U) I p r i n t e d a blown up copy of the h i g h - r e s o l u t i o nphoto, and laminated i t f o r ease of storage and t r a n s f e r . Ithen walked t o t h e TOC and d e l i v e r e d the laminated copy t o ourcategory 2 i n t e r p r e t e r . She reviewed the i n f o r m a t i o n and ahouta h a l f - h o u r l a t e r d e l i v e r e d a rough w r i t t e n t r a n s c r i p t i nEnglish t o the S2 s e c t i o n .d. (U) I read the t r a n s c r i p t , and f o l l o w e d up w i t h her,asking f o r her take on i t s contents. She s a i d i t was easy f o rher t o t r a n s c r i b e verbatim since I blew up the photograph andlaminated i t . She s a i d the general nature o f the document wasbenign. The documentation, as I assessed as w e l l , was merely as c h o l a r l y c r i t i q u e o f the then-current I r a q i Prime M i n i s t e r ,Nouri a l - M a l i k i . I t d e t a i l e d c o r r u p t i o n w i t h i n the cabinet o fa l - M a l i k i ^ s government, and t h e f i n a n c i a l impact o f t h i sc o r r u p t i o n on the I r a q i people.e. (U) A f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g t h i s discrepancy between t h e FP^sr e p o r t , and t h e i n t e r p r e t e r ' s t r a n s c r i p t , I forwarded t h i sdiscovery, i n person t o the TOC OIC and B a t t l e NCOIC.2^UNCLASSIFIED'^^^i^^i^UNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)f . (U) The TOC OIC and, the overhearing B a t t l e c a p t a i n ,informed me they didnot need o r want t o know t h i s i n f o r m a t i o nany more. They t o l d me t o "drop i t " and t o ^ust a s s i s t them andthe FP i n f i n d i n g out where more of these p r i n t shops c r e a t i n g" a n t i - I r a q i l i t e r a t u r e " might he. I couldn^t b e l i e v e what Iheard, and I r e t u r n e d t o the T-SCIF and complained t o the otheranalysts and my s e c t i o n NCOIC ahout what happened. Some weresympathetic, hut no-one wanted t o do anything ahout i t .g. (U) I am the type o f person who l i k e s t o know how t h i n g swork, and as an a n a l y s t , t h i s means I always want t o f i g u r e outthe t r u t h . Unlike other analysts i n my s e c t i o n , or othersections w i t h i n 2-lOBCT, I was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h ^usts c r a t c h i n g the surface, and producing "canned" or "cookiec u t t e r " assessments. I wanted t o know why something was the wayi t was, and what we could do t o c o r r e c t or m i t i g a t e a s i t u a t i o n .I knew t h a t i f I continued t o a s s i s t the Baghdad FP i ni d e n t i f y i n g the p o l i t i c a l opponents o f Prime M i n i s t e r a l - M a l i k i ,those people would he a r r e s t e d , and i n the custody o f t h i ss p e c i a l u n i t o f the Baghdad FP, very l i k e l y t o r t u r e d and notseen again f o r a very long time, i f ever.h. (U) Instead o f a s s i s t i n g the s p e c i a l u n i t o f the BaghdadFP, I decided t o take the i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s c l o s e i t t o the WLOi n the hope t h a t , before the upcoming 7 March 2010 e l e c t i o n ,they could generate immediate press on the issue, and preventt h i s u n i t o f the FP from c o n t i n u i n g t o crack down on p o l i t i c a lopponents. On ^ March 2010, I hurned the r e p o r t , the photos,the high r e s o l u t i o n copy o f the pamphlet, and the i n t e r p r e t e r ' sh^ndwi^itt^^n t ^ ^ n ^ c ^ ^ i ^ t on^o ^ C:0-RW. ^ t o ^ kand c o p i e d t h e d a t a o n t o my p e r s o n a l computer.C:0-^W tc^ my C:HtJi . (U) Unlike the times before, instead o f uploading thei n f o r m a t i o n through the WLO websites^ submission form, I made aSecure F i l e Transfer Protocol (SFTP) connection t o a "cloud"drophox operated hy the WLO. The drophox contained a f o l d e rt h a t allowed me t o upload d i r e c t l y i n t o i t .Saving f i l e s i n t ot h i s d i r e c t o r y allowed anyone w i t h l o g i n access t o the server t oview and download them.25UNCLASSIFIEOUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)^. (U) A f t e r uploading these f i l e s t o the WLO on 5 March2010, I n o t i f i e d Nathaniel over Jahher. Although sympathetic,he s a i d t h a t the WLO needed more i n f o r m a t i o n t o confirm theevent i n order f o r i t t o he puhlished or t o gain i n t e r e s t i n thei n t e r n a t i o n a l media. I attempted t o provide s p e c i f i c s , hut t omy disappointment, the WLO wehsite chose not t o p u b l i s h t h i sinformation.k. (U) At the same time, I began s i f t i n g through i n f o r m a t i o nfrom the U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) and J o i n t Task Force(JTF) Guantanamo, Cuba (GTMO). The thought occurred t o me,although u n l i k e l y , t h a t I wouldnot he s u r p r i s e d i f thei n d i v i d u a l s detained hy the FP might he turned over hack i n t oU.S. custody and ending up i n the custody of JTF-GTMO.1. (U) As I digested through the i n f o r m a t i o n on JTF-GTMO, Iq u i c k l y found the detainee assessment h r i e f s (DABs). Ip r e v i o u s l y came across these documents before, i n 2009, hut d i dnot t h i n k much of th^m. However, t h i s time I was more curiousand during t h i s search I found them again. The DABs werew r i t t e n i n standard DoD memorandum format, and addressed theCommander, U.S. SOUTHCOM. Each memorandum gave basic backgroundi n f o r m a t i o n ahout a s p e c i f i c detainee held a t some p o i n t hy JTFGTMO.m. (U) I have always heen i n t e r e s t e d on the issue of themoral e f f i c a c y of our actions surrounding JTF-GTMO. On the onehand, I always understood the need t o d e t a i n and i n t e r r o g a t ei n d i v i d u a l s who might wish t o harm the U.S. and our a l l i e s . If ^ I t t h a t was what w^ wer^ t r y i n g t o do a t JTF-GTMO.However,the more I hecame educated on the t o p i c , i t seemed t h a t we foundourselves h o l d i n g an i n c r e a s i n g number of i n d i v i d u a l si n d e f i n i t e l y t h a t we b e l i e v e d or knew were innocent, l o w - l e v e l" f o o t s o l d i e r s " t h a t didnot have u s e f u l i n t e l l i g e n c e and wouldhe released i f they were s t i l l held i n t h e a t e r .n. (U) I also r e c a l l e d t h a t i n e a r l y 2009, t h e then-newlye l e c t e d President Barack Ohama s t a t e d he would close JTF-GTMOand t h a t the f a c i l i t y compromised our standing i n the world anddiminished our "moral a u t h o r i t y . " A f t e r f a m i l i a r i z i n g myselfw i t h the DABs, I agreed.26UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.Private F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)o. (U) Reading through the DABs, I noted t h a t they were nota n a l y t i c a l products. Instead, they contained summaries o f t e a r l i n e d versions o f I n t e r i m I n t e l l i g e n c e Reports (IIRs) t h a t wereo l d or u n c l a s s i f i e d . None o f the DABs contained names o fsources or quotes from T a c t i c a l I n t e r r o g a t i o n Reports (TIRs).Since the OABs were heing sent t o the U.S. SOUTHCOM commander, Iassessed t h a t they were intended t o provide very generalbackground i n f o r m a t i o n on each detainee, and not a d e t a i l e dassessment.p. (U) I n a d d i t i o n t o the manner the DABs were w r i t t e n , Irecognized t h a t they were a t l e a s t several years o l d , anddiscussed detainees t h a t were already released from JTF-GTMO.Based on t h i s , I determined t h a t the DABs were not veryimportant from e i t h e r an i n t e l l i g e n c e or n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t ystandpoint.q. (U) On 7 March 2010, during my Jahher conversations w i t hNathaniel, I asked him i f he thought the DABs were o f any use t oanyone. Nathaniel i n d i c a t e d t h a t although he didnot b e l i e v ethey were o f p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e he d i d h e l i e v e t h a t theycould he used t o merge i n t o the general h i s t o r i c a l account o fwhat occurred a t JTF-GTMO. He also thought t h a t the DABs mighthe h e l p f u l t o the l e g a l counsel o f those c u r r e n t l y andp r e v i o u s l y h e l d a t JTF-GTMO.r. (U) A f t e r t h i s discussion, I decided t o download the DABs.I used an a p p l i c a t i o n c a l l e d "WGet" t o download the DABs. Idownloaded WGet o f f the NlPRNet laptop i n the T-SCIF l i k e otherprograms.I s a v ^ d t h ^ t o t ^ t o ^ CO-RW a n d p l ^ c ^ dt h ^ ^x^cut^hl^i n "My Documents" d i r e c t o r y of my user p r o f i l e on t h ^ DCGS-ASIPRNet w o r k s t a t i o n .s. (U) On 7 March 2010, I took the l i s t o f l i n k s f o r the DABsand WGet downloaded them s e q u e n t i a l l y .I hurned the DABs onto aCD-RW and took i t t o my CHU and copied them t o my personalcomputer. On 8 March 2010, I combined the DABs w i t h the USACICr e p o r t on the WLO i n t o a compressed " z i p " f i l e .^ip filesc o n t a i n m u l t i p l e f i l e s which are compressed t o reduce t h e i rsi^e.A f t e r c r e a t i n g the ^ i p f i l e , I uploaded the f i l e ontot h e i r "cloud" drophox v i a SFTP. Once these were uploaded, In o t i f i e d Nathaniel t h a t the information was i n the "x"d i r e c t o r y , which had heen assigned f o r my use.27UNCLASSIFIEOUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S. v,t . (U) E a r l i e r t h a t day, I downloaded the USACIC r e p o r t onWLO. As discussed above, I p r e v i o u s l y reviewed the r e p o r t onnumerous occasions and, although I had saved the document ontow o r k s t a t i o n b e f o r e , I could not locate i t . A f t e r I found thedocument again, I downloaded i t t o my w o r k s t a t i o n and saved i tonto the same CD-RW as the DABs, descrihed ahove.u. (U) Although I my access included a great deal o fi n f o r m a t i o n , I decided I had nothing else t o send t o the WLOa f t e r sending them the DABs and the USACIC r e p o r t . Up t o t h i sp o i n t I sent them the f o l l o w i n g :(1) The CIDNE-I and CIDNE-A SIGACT t a b l e s .(2) The "10REY^JAVI1^13" DOS cable.(3) The 12 J u l y 2007 AWT video and the 2006 and 2007 ROEdocuments.(^) The SIGACT r e p o r t and supporting documents concerningthe 15 i n d i v i d u a l s detained hy the Baghdad FP.(5) The U.S. SOUTHCOM and JTF-GTMO DABs.(6) The USACIC r e p o r t on the WLO and wehsite.V. (U) Over the next few weeks, I d i d not send any a d d i t i o n a li n f o r m a t i o n t o the WLO. I continued t o converse w i t h Nathanielover the Jahher c l i e n t , and i n the WLO IRC channel. Although Istopped s e n d i n g documents t o WI^O, no one a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e WLOpressured me i n t o g i v i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n . The decisions t h a t Imade t o send documents and i n f o r m a t i o n t o the WLO and wehsitewere my own d e c i s i o n s , and I take f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r myactions.28UNCLASSIFIEO^UNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)10. (U) Facts regarding the unauthorized storage and disclosureof other government documents.a. (U) On 22 March 2010, I downloaded two documents. I foundthese documents over the course o f my normal d u t i e s as ana n a l y s t . Based on my t r a i n i n g and the guidance o f my superiors,I looked a t as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . Doing so providedme w i t h the a b i l i t y t o make connections others might miss.h. (U) On several occasions d u r i n g the month o f March, Iaccessed i n f o r m a t i o n from a government e n t i t y . I read severaldocuments from a s e c t i o n w i t h i n t h i s government e n t i t y . Thecontent of two o f these documents upset me g r e a t l y . I hadd i f f i c u l t y b e l i e v i n g what t h i s s e c t i o n was d i s c u s s i n g .c. (U) On 22 March 2010, I downloaded the two documents t h a tI found t r o u b l i n g . I compressed them i n t o a z i p f i l e named" h l a h . z i p " and hurned them onto a CD-RW. I took the CD-RW t o myCHU and saved the f i l e t o my personal computer. I uploaded thei n f o r m a t i o n t o the WLO wehsite using the designated drop-hox.29UNCLASSIFIEOUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y —P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S,11. (U) Facts regarding the unauthorized storage and d i s c l o s u r eof the NCD DOS cables.a. (U) I n l a t e March I received a warning over Jahher fromNathaniel t h a t the WLO wehsite would he p u b l i s h i n g the AWTvideo. He i n d i c a t e d t h a t the WLO would he very busy and thefrequency and i n t e n s i t y of our Jahher conversations decreasedsignificantly.h. (U) During t h i s time, I had nothing hut work t o d i s t r a c tme.I read more of the d i p l o m a t i c cables puhlished on the DOSNCD server. With my i n s a t i a b l e c u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t i ng e o p o l i t i c s , I hecame f a s c i n a t e d w i t h them. I read not onlycables on I r a q , hut also ahout c o u n t r i e s and events I foundi n t e r e s t i n g . The more I read, the more I was f a s c i n a t e d hy theway we d e a l t w i t h other nations and o r g a n i s a t i o n s . I also begant o t h i n k t h a t they documented backdoor deals and seeminglyc r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y t h a t didnot seem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the def a c t o leader of the f r e e world.c. (U) Up t o t h i s p o i n t during the deployment, I had issues Is t r u g g l e d w i t h and d i f f i c u l t y at work. Of the documentsreleased, the cables are the only one I was not a b s o l u t e l yc e r t a i n couldn^t harm the U.S.I conducted research on thecables puhlished on NCD, as w e l l as how DOS cables work i ngeneral. I n p a r t i c u l a r , I wanted t o know how each cable waspuhlished on SIPRNet v i a the NCD.d.(U) As p a r t of my open-source research, I found a documentp u h l i s h e d hy 00^ on i t s o f f i c i a l w e h s i t e .Thedocument p r o v i d e dguidance on c a p t i o n markings f o r i n d i v i d u a l cahles and handlingi n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n . I q u i c k l y learned t h a tc a p t i o n markings c l e a r l y d e t a i l the s e n s i t i v i t y l e v e l of a DOScable. For example, "NODIS" (No D i s t r i b u t i o n ) was used f o rmessages of the highest s e n s i t i v i t y , and were only d i s t r i b u t e dto the a u t h o r i s e d r e c i p i e n t s . The "SIPDIS" (SIPRNetD i s t r i b u t i o n ) c a p t i o n was a p p l i e d only t o r e p o r t i n g and otheri n f o r m a t i o n a l messages t h a t were deemed appropriate f o r releaseto a wide number of i n d i v i d u a l s .30UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support of Providence I n q u i r y — U.S. v.P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)e. (U) According t o the DOS guidance f o r a cable t o have theSIPDIS c a p t i o n i t could not include any other captions t h a t wereintended t o l i m i t d i s t r i b u t i o n . The SIPDIS c a p t i o n was only f o ri n f o r m a t i o n t h a t could he shared w i t h anyone w i t h access t oSIPRNet. I was aware t h a t thousands o f m i l i t a r y personal, DoD,DOS, and other c i v i l i a n agencies had easy access t o t h e cahles.The f a c t t h a t t h e SIPDIS caption was only f o r wide d i s t r i b u t i o nmade sense t o me given t h a t the vast m a j o r i t y o f t h e NCD cahleswere not c l a s s i f i e d .f. (U) The more I read the cahles, the more I came t o theconclusion t h a t t h i s type o f i n f o r m a t i o n should become p u b l i c .I once read and used a quote on open diplomacy w r i t t e n a f t e r t h eF i r s t World War, and how t h e world would he a b e t t e r place i fstates would avoid making secret pacts and deals w i t h andagainst each other. I thought these cahles were a prime exampleof the need f o r a more open diplomacy.Given a l l t h e DOSi n f o r m a t i o n I read, t h e f a c t t h a t most o f t h e cahles wereu n c l a s s i f i e d , and t h a t a l l o f the cahles had t h e SIPDIS caption,I h e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c release of these cahles would notdamage t h e U.S. However, I d i d h e l i e v e t h e cahles might heembarrassing, since they represented very honest opinions andstatements hehind t h e hacks o f other nations and organisations.I n many ways, these cahles are a catalog o f c l i q u e s and gossip.I b e l i e v e d exposing t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n might make some w i t h i n theDOS and others unhappy.g. (U) On 28 March 2010, I began downloading a copy o f t h eSIPDIS cahles using the program WGet descrihed above. I usedinstances o f t h e WGet a p p l i c a t i o n t o download the NCD cahles i nthe background, as I worked on my d a i l y tasks. The NCD cahleswere downloaded from 28 March 2010 t o 9 A p r i l 2010. A f t e rdownloading t h e cahles, I saved them onto a CD-RW. These cahleswent from the e a r l i e s t dates i n NCD t o 28 February 2010. I tookthe CD-RW t o my CHU on 10 A p r i l 2010. I sorted the cahles on mypersonal computer, compressed them using the B^ip2 compressiona l g o r i t h m descrihed above, and uploaded them t o the WLO v i a thedesignated drophox descrihed above.31UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y -- U.S. v,P r i v a t e F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)h. (U) On 3 May 2010, I used WGet t o download an update o fthe cahles f o r t h e months o f March 2010 and A p r i l 2010, andsaved the i n f o r m a t i o n onto a z i p f i l e and hurned i t t o CD-RW. Ithen took the CD-RW t o my CHU and saved them t o my computer.i . (U) I l a t e r found t h a t the f i l e was corrupted d u r i n g thet r a n s f e r . Although I intended t o resave another copy o f thesecahles, I was removed from the T-SCIF on 8 May 2010, a f t e r analtercation.32UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIED12. (U) Facts regarding the unauthorized storage and d i s c l o s u r eof the Gharani (Farah p r o v i n c e ) , Afghanistan 15-6 i n v e s t i g a t i o nand videos.a. (U) I n l a t e March 2010, I discovered a U.S. CENTCOMd i r e c t o r y on a 2009 a i r s t r i k e i n Afghanistan. I was searchingCENTCOM f o r i n f o r m a t i o n I could use as an a n a l y s t . As descrihedabove, t h i s was something t h a t myself and other analysts ando f f i c e r s d i d on a frequent basis.h. (U) As I reviewed the documents, I r e c a l l e d the i n c i d e n tand what happened. The a i r s t r i k e occurred i n the Gharaniv i l l a g e i n the Farah Province of Northwestern Afghanistan. I treceived worldwide press coverage during the time as i t wasreported t h a t up t o 100 t o 150 Afghan c i v i l i a n s , mostly womenand c h i l d r e n , were a c c i d e n t l y k i l l e d during the a i r s t r i k e .c. (U) A f t e r going through the r e p o r t and i t s annexes, Ibegan t o view the i n c i d e n t as her^ng s i m i l a r t o the 12 July 2007AWT engagements i n I r a q . However, t h i s event was n o t i c e a b l yd i f f e r e n t i n t h a t i t i n v o l v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher number o fi n d i v i d u a l s , l a r g e r a i r c r a f t , and much heavier munitions. Also,the conclusions o f the r e p o r t are even more d i s t u r b i n g thanthose of the 12 J u l y 2007 i n c i d e n t .d. (U) I d i d not see anything i n the 15-6 r e p o r t or i t sannexes t h a t gave away s e n s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . Rather, t h ei n v e s t i g a t i o n and i t s conclusions help e x p l a i n how t h i s i n c i d e n toccurred and what those i n v o l v e d should have done, and how t oavoid an event l i k e t h i s from o c c u r r i n g again.e. (U) A f t e r reviewing the r e p o r t and i t s annexes, Idownloaded the 15-6 i n v e s t i g a t i o n , PowerPoint p r e s e n t a t i o n s , ands o v ^ r a l other supporting documents t o my DCG^-A w o r k s t a t i o n . Ialso downloaded t h r e e ^ i p f i l e s c o n t a i n i n g the videos of thei n c i d e n t . I hurned t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n onto a CD-RW andt r a n s f e r r e d i t t o the personal computer i n my CHU. E i t h e r l a t e rt h a t day or the next day, I uploaded the i n f o r m a t i o n t o the WLOwehsite, t h i s time using a new v e r s i o n o f the WLO wehsitesubmission form. Unlike other times using the submission formabove, I d i d not a c t i v a t e the TOR anonymizer.33UNCLASSIFIEDUNCLASSIFIEDSUBJECT: Statement i n Support o f Providence I n q u i r y —Private F i r s t Class (PFC) Bradley E. Manning (U)U.S. v.13. (U) This concludes my statement and f a c t s f o r t h i sprovidence i n q u i r y . The p o i n t o f contact (POC) f o r t h i smemorandum i s the undersigned a t HHC, USAG, J o i n t Base MyerHenderson H a l l , Fort Myer, V i r g i n i a 22211.3^UNCLASSIFIED

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